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N-2016-006: 1-1 · File · February 19-20, 1994
Part of Metis Heritage Association fonds

File consists of a 132 page annotated transcript of the Metis Heritage Association's Michif Language Conference, held February 19 and 20, 1994. This conference was facilitated by Bren Kolson, Executive Director of the Metis Heritage Association, and chaired by Father Guy Lavalee. Proceedings include discussions of personal histories of Metis elders, and aspects of Michif language, Metis culture and history. Annotations indicate the portions of the transcript that are Michif language excerpts.

N-1992-084: 1-13 · File · January 12, 1977
Part of Metis Heritage Association fonds

The file consists of an oral history interview with John Evans in Fort Smith on January 12, 1977. John's wife, Saraphine Mercredi, also makes a couple of comments. The interviewers are Ray Price and Joanne Overvold. The file also includes additional notes made by Ray and a family history summary.
Interview notes from 1992 Index: John was born in Fort Chipewyan. John's father, David Evans, was from Winnipeg. (Originally Welsh?). He died when John was 16. John's mother, Helen Gibot, was a Cree woman from Fort Chipewyan. She died when he was 11. John had 4 brothers (eg. Morris and Philip) and 1 sister. John lived with an old widow, Adelle Flett, for about 2 years after he left the convent (1924-25) at the age of 14. She was somewhat crippled [disabled] and didn't have anyone to do chores for her. "But she used to do her own living, you know. No welfare them days, no nothing. So she used to do all the laundry from town, lace snowshoes, and do any kind of work. She couldn't read or write. And yet, people asked her to make a tent so big, a tent 12' by 14' or something like that, she'll tell them how much canvas it needed and she made it." Plane crash in winter of 1930 in Fort Chipewyan·killed·4·children. Plane was piloted by Monkey Sherlock [Captain W.N. Sherlock]. Salt River in the 1920's & 1930's (?). " ... there was still quite a few people there. At one time they had two stores there Hudson Bay and private outfit. Cause all the trappers used to pull in there, especially in the fall and again in the spring after they quit hunting because it was a good place to fish and feed their dogs. That's what they used to be there for. And then celebrate too, I guess."

Please note that this interview contains an outdated and offensive term historically used to refer to persons of Chinese ancestry.

N-1992-084: 25-10 · File · March 1992
Part of Metis Heritage Association fonds

The file consists of the index to the Metis Heritage Association collection, compiled by Ingrid Kritsch in 1992. The index includes directions on use and structure, a name index, a place name index, and catalogue entries for individual files, which could include interview transcripts, photographs, or copied documents.

Please note that the a derogatory term to refer to a person with mixed heritage is used throughout the index and in quotes from the interviews. We have reproduced this term in the digitized document because it is a part of the original historical record.

N-2001-017: 6-14 · File · 1997
Part of Metis Heritage Association fonds

The file consists of drafts of sections of the "Picking up the Threads" book, including Introduction, Picking up the threads: An overview of the historical context for the emergence of the earliest northern Metis, Metis in the World War II Era, and Old Fort Rae, and an outline and biography of the chapter on Metis and the fur trade.

Please note that the document uses a derogatory term to refer to a person with mixed heritage. We have reproduced this term in the digitized document because it is a part of the original historical record.

N-2001-017: 6-13 · File · 1994, 1997
Part of Metis Heritage Association fonds

The file consists of records relating to the Salt River Settlement section of the "Picking up the Threads" book project and an earlier oral history project, including draft text, a bibliography, deposit agreements and information forms, the Oral Tradition Research Guide (Department of Culture & Communications), correspondence, a project proposal, and footnote references.

Please note that the document uses a derogatory term to refer to a person with mixed heritage. We have reproduced this term in the digitized document because it is a part of the original historical record.

N-2001-017: 5-6 · File · 1996
Part of Metis Heritage Association fonds

The file consists of transcripts of oral history interviews. The first set of interviews were conducted by Andrea Zubko, Dave Miller, and Dolly Macleod while on the Metis Elders Mackenzie River Voyage on the M.S. Norweta July 1-12, 1996. Interviewees include Ernie Camsell, Art Furlong, Alex Lafferty, Frank Laviolette, Bill Laferte, Pat Tourangeau, Rosie Norwegian, and Greta Baetz. The second set of interviewes were conducted during the Elder's Conference held March 28-31, 1996. Interviewees include Ernestine Lennie and Agnes (Cardinal) Blake. Family trees and a list of boats are also included.

Please note that the interviews use a derogatory term to refer to a person with mixed heritage. We have reproduced this term in the digitized document because it is a part of the original historical record.

N-1992-084: 4-9 · File · [ca. 1975]-1977
Part of Metis Heritage Association fonds

The file consists of the transcripts from three oral history interviews with Ted Trindell in Fort Simpson. The first interview was conducted by Jim Antoine. The second interview was conducted by Joanne Burger. The third interview was conducted by Joanne Overvold and Ray Price and also included Ted's wife Bella Trindell.

Interview notes from 1992 Index: Ted Trindell. Ted was born in 1901 in Fort Norman [now Tulita], he is the son of Alexis and Annie Trindell. Ted has been a trapper most of his life on his own until 1955, spending 35 years trapping. He has been married twice, his first wife was Mary Gaudet and his second wife was Bella Gaudet. Since 1955 he has been a community health worker and a carpenter. He presently resides in Fort Simpson; Bear skin being stretched.

Please note that the interview uses a derogatory term to refer to a person with mixed heritage. We have reproduced this term in the digitized document because it is a part of the original historical record.

William & Elizabeth Schaefer
N-1992-084: 4-3 · File · January 14, 1977
Part of Metis Heritage Association fonds

The file consists of a transcript of an oral history interview with William and Elizabeth Schaefer in Fort Smith. A person identified as "Joe" also makes some comments. The interviewers were Ray Price, Joanne Overvold, and John Evans.

Interview notes from 1992 Index: William was born in Oregon in about· 1894. He was married to Elizabeth Laviolette on September 13, 1930. Elizabeth was married previously to Pierre Tourangeau. Elizabeth was born about 1906. Elizabeth's father was Pierre Laviolette. Her step father was Sousi King. Her mother's name was Sophie [doesn't know her maiden name.]

Please note that the transcript contains an anti-Black racist comment on page 15 of the PDF and a derogatory term to refer to a person with mixed heritage. We have reproduced these in the digitized document because they are a part of the original historical record.

Zoe
N-1992-084: 4-15 · File · [ca. 1970]
Part of Metis Heritage Association fonds

The file consists of what appears to be the narrative versions of oral history interviews with Andre and Adele Zoe. Because the text ends in the middle of the page, some information for Isidore Fish is also included. Keith Crowe is identified as the source of the material.

Please note that the interview uses a derogatory term to refer to a person with mixed heritage. We have reproduced this term in the digitized document and interview notes below because it is a part of the original historical record.

Interview notes from 1992 Index: Andre thinks that he was born in Lac la Martre. Andre thinks that his father was either a half-breed or a white. He doesn't know where his mother came from but his mother's father was the first person to build a house at Lac la Martre. Kahntifi was married to one of Edzo's sisters.

[Victor Lafferty, Treaty 11]
N-1992-084: 4-10 · File · April 22, 1972
Part of Metis Heritage Association fonds

The file consists of the transcripts from an oral history interview with Victory Lafferty in Fort Providence on April 1972. Victor was the interpreter for Treaty 11 signed at Fort Providence in 1921. The interview was conducted by Liz Petrovitch, Father Lusson, and Robert Ross.

Please note that the interview uses a derogatory term to refer to a person with mixed heritage. We have reproduced this term in the digitized document and interview notes below because it is a part of the original historical record.

Interview notes from 1992 Index: "Victor Lafferty ... was the interpreter for the treaty [Treaty 11] signed at Providence in 1921. 11 He discussed what he understood the Treaty meant. Discussion also about scrip. McKinna [?] was a half breed Commissioner. Walko [?] & Corty [?] also mentioned. Discussion about first plane in Fort Simpson. All the skis broke on landing. " ... Walter Johnson made the skies [skis] for them with old boards and mooseskin glue. Made the two skies [skis] for them and one of them flew to Peace River to get parts for the other." [Imperial Oil's Vic and Remy Junkers airplanes]

Ed Plante
N-1992-084: 4-1 · File · February 11, 1977
Part of Metis Heritage Association fonds

The file consists of a transcript of an oral history interview with Ed Plante in Hay River on February 11, 1977. The interviewers were Joanne Overvold and Ray Price.

Please note that the interview uses a derogatory term to refer to a person with mixed heritage. We have reproduced this term in the digitized document and interview notes below because it is a part of the original historical record.

Interview notes from 1992 Index: Ed was born in 1918 in Grouard, Alberta. His father, Michel Plante was born in Manuch [?]. He was a half-.breed,· half French and half Cree. He died when Ed was about 6 years old. His mother, Marie Ferguson was born in Grouard. Marie and Michel had 4 boys and 4 girls. Ed thinks that his maternal grandfather might have come from Manitoba. He died during the 1918 Flu. His maternal grandmother was about 103 years old when she died, about 50 years ago (She died in 1927). She went through the Riel Rebellion. She was married twice. Her second marriage happened when she was in her 50's or 60's. She had 8 boys and 1 girl with her first husband (Ferguson.) Her married name after her second marriage was Giroux . She married a Chief from Kinuso, Alberta.
"There was one story she [Ed's grandmother Ferguson] always told me, the Metis was winning the battle and this Father Lacombe they trusted him quite well, the Metis did, and they were getting short of ammunition and Father Lacombe came over that evening and found out about this. The next morning the Mounted Police attacked, as a matter a fact that they figured now is the time to do it, they got no ammunition."

N-1992-084: 3-9 · File · [ca. 1975]
Part of Metis Heritage Association fonds

The file consists of the transcript of an oral history interview with Elizabeth Mercredi in Fort Smith. The interviewer is not identified.

Interview notes from 1992 Index: Elizabeth was born in St. Albert on November 24, 1888 or 1889. Her mother died when she was about 6 years old. She married Isadore Mercredi in 1908. They had 7 children including Eugene, Rene, James, Mary and a daughter married to John Gratrix. The following note was written on the transcript: "Not quotable, but has content of tape." I take this to mean that the tape has not been transcribed verbatim but has the gist of the interview.

Please note that the interview uses a derogatory term to refer to a person with mixed heritage. We have reproduced this term in the digitized document because it is a part of the original historical record.

N-1992-084: 3-7 · File · January 20, 1977
Part of Metis Heritage Association fonds

The file consists of the transcript of an oral history interview with Father Menez at Fort Resolution on January 20, 1977. The interviewer was Ray Price.

Please note that the interview uses a derogatory term to refer to a person with mixed heritage. We have reproduced this term in the digitized document because it is a part of the original historical record.

Interview notes from 1992 Index: Short note of how the Courieur de Bois and the Metis came north. " ... when the English took over after General Wolfe's exercise in Quebec there, the fur traders, the French fur traders were sort of moved out but they left behind the little guys, the guys that were running around in the woods getting the fur. And when the English moved, well, who did they use but those who were already in the fur trade." p.2-3. Father Menez mentions that a vaccine was used by Doctor Diess [?] in 18371 [For smallpox??] Re: use of alcohol in fur trade: In 1800 there were 10,000 gallons of booze but by 1803, "·· .really the war between the Hudson’s Bay and the Northwest was at the peak, it went up to 20,000 [gallons]." p.5 Sir John Franklin was talking to Francois Beaulieu about travelling to the Arctic Ocean in 1820, and Francois Beaulieu drew him a map of the Arctic coast from Coppermine to Bathurst. The Burnside River has a Chipewyan name which means the river of the enemy. "Contwoyto Lake is a Chipewyan name meaning, the English used to call it Rum Lake because Samuel Hearne opened a keg of rum there. But the first part of the suffix, I mean the prefix means alcohol, and the suffix is lake." p.8 **Petitot writings and Back's journal mentioned in relation to the Mandevilles and Beaulieu and his 'gang' and where they met them i.e. Salt River, Fort Reliance, Fort Providence, Arctic Red River p.8-9. *****Books mentioned in text: "Le Metis Canadien" by Marcel Giraud. "Dix-huit-ans Chez les Sauvages" by Bishop Thoreau [?]. "Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition to the Mouth of the Great Fish River, and Along the Shores of the Arctic Ocean, in the
Years 1833, 1834, and 1835" by Sir George Back. "Soixante quinze ans Le Postulate" by Father Broullard(?). "History of Fort Resolution" by David Smith; "Fur Trade Posts of the Northwest Territories, 1870- 1970" by Peter Usher." "Explorations in the Far North" by Frank Russell. "The Nearing North" by Freeman Lewis. Includes stories about Francois Beaulieu (Old King Beaulieu). The following books were available through the Manitoba Metis Federation Press: "Famous Manitoba Metis," "Six Metis Communities," "A Social History of the Manitoba Metis," "Stories of the Metis," Questions and Answers Concerning the Metis," "The Metis: Canada's Forgotten People." Letter from A.G. MacKay on letterhead of MacKay, Hanley & Boyd [lawyers] to Frank Pedley the Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, Ottawa, dated March 28, 1914 that informs the department that "the Indians around Fort Smith, Smith Landing, Chipewyan and Fond du Lac, are being told that the government is about to put them onto Reserves and deprive them absolutely of their right to hunt and in other respects are agitating them. He says that the half-breeds, particularly of the Boldeau [Ray comments that it should be Beaulieu] family ... are busy stirring up trouble with the Indians. And he thinks the feeling is such now that it is not safe for a white man to be engaged in prospectors work etc. in that district ... " p.13-14 ****Various R.C.M.P. reports (1897, 1909, 1912, 1915) are discussed.

Frank Norn
N-1992-084: 3-17 · File · February 9, 1977
Part of Metis Heritage Association fonds

The file consists of a transcript of an oral history interview with Frank Norn in Hay River on February 9, 1977. The interviewers were Joanne Overvold and Ray Price.

Please note that the interview uses a derogatory term to refer to a person with mixed heritage. We have reproduced this term in the digitized document and quoted interview notes below because it is a part of the original historical record.

Interview notes from 1992 Index: Frank's father, Charlie Norn, was born in Fort Resolution in 1876. He died October 27, 1952 or 1953. He was married to Julia Tapia of Hay River in 1902. Frank's mother, Julia; died November 28, 1963 Frank' s wife' s name was Mary or Marianne Tambour. She was born January 14, 1909 in Hay River. Her father's name was Jamie Tambour. Her mother's name was Marie Ettchedi. Frank was born January 27, 1904 in Hay River. Frank and Mary married in 1930. Frank thinks that his mother's mother had something to do with the fellow that started Hay River (Jean-Claire?)
Manuscript mentioned in interview: "Historical Sketch of the Origin[al?] Work of the Hay River Mission Great Slave Lake, N.W.T. 1893-1956." p,l ****Metis-Indian relations. "RAY: During the time that you've been in Hay River in the earlier days, there was no distinction made between those who were Indian or Metis? FRANK_: No nothing at all. RAY: When did you first notice a distinction? FRANK: ·Oh, just about 2 or 3 yrs back. RAY: You were always fully accepted as one of them? FRANK: Sure. JOANNE: Who do you think started that? FRANK: I couldn't tell you, I think it really started since the Land Claims started there, seems to be the Metis and the Treaty Indians arguing. That's
when it really started. They used to all mix together and I never heard anyone saying you're an Indian and you're a half-breed. Everybody was friendly so about 3 or 4 yrs back, since they started talking about the Land Claims maybe one Metis thinks he's better than a Treaty Indian and I think that's when it came up cause it just spread out, I don't know what your opinion is, Rick Hardy started it when he was President of the Metis Association. They seem to have trouble with the Metis and Treaty."

Celine Lafferty
N-1992-084: 2-9 · File · February 18, 1977
Part of Metis Heritage Association fonds

The file consists of the transcript of an oral history interview with Celine Lafferty on February 18, 1977. The interviewers are Joanne Overvold and Ray Price.

Interview notes from 1992 Index: Father, Andrew Laviolette (adopted by Laviolettes in Fort Wrigley). Died in 1911[?). Mother, Madelaine, was from Fort Providence. Died when Celine was 1 1/2 years old. Three girls in the family - Celine, Isabette and(?). Celine was born in Fort Providence and married in 1924 at the age of 23 (Celine born in 1901?) to Joe Lafferty. Celine's mother-in-law,. Madelaine Bouvier. Celine's daughter-in-law, Maggie Villeneuve. Celine had 9 children including Keri, Gabe, Ernestine, Guy, Albertine, and Beatrice. She is related to Philip Bonnetrouge (his mother and Celine's were sisters) .
In 1942, the Army was in Providence. "Every woman was working for them, I used to take them bread if they (wanted home made bread, I used to wash their clothes, I used to make soap for them too, and made hoods on their parkas. They sure kept us busy." Celine's husband, Joe, worked on the boats for about 60 years. Also mentions murderer Albert Lebeau.

Please note that the document uses a derogatory term to refer to a person with mixed heritage. We have reproduced this term in the digitized document because it is a part of the original historical record.

Beaulieu [family]
N-1992-084: 23-9 · File
Part of Metis Heritage Association fonds

Please note that the document uses a derogatory term to refer to a person with mixed heritage. We have reproduced this term in the digitized document because it is a part of the original historical record.