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Authority record
Kennedy, Pi
Person · December 9, 1926 -

Alexander Philip (Pi) John Kennedy was born in Fort Smith on December 9, 1926, the first son of Philip Kennedy and Leoni Mercredi. In 1932 his mother died of tuberculosis at the age of 23. Pi went to residential school in Fort Resolution for two years, but his father took him out in 1934 to help trap. In 1936 his father built a cabin near Nataway Lake. Around that time, at the age of ten, Pi started driving a dog team, which would start a lifelong dedication to mushing. In 1944 Pi's father died of tuberculosis.

Throughout his life Pi generally trapped through the winter and spring on his trapline (sometimes partnering with someone else for the spring hunt) and got various seasonal summer work around Fort Smith. This included jobs such as crushing rock, digging and setting power poles, putting in the Fort Smith water system, working for Forestry, or in construction. In years where the trapping was good he did not need to take summer work.

Pi started taking photographs in earnest in the 1960s, and he also documented his life on Super8 film. Not only did he document aspects of life as a trapper and dog musher, but he also documented the community of Fort Smith, parades, fastball tournaments, special events and his extended family. His keen interest in radio, baseball, animals and dog mushing is documented as well. Pi notably trapped exclusively with a dog team until 1986. Even after buying a snow machine he continued to use dogs in the bush.

In 2010 at the age of 84, Pi suffered a stroke out on the trapline. After this, he moved himself and his dogs to Fort Smith permanently. Multiple books have been published about his life, including a series of children’s books in Cree published by the Northwest Territory Métis Nation in the 2000s, and a biography published with Patti-Kay Hamilton in 2023, launched on his 97th birthday.

Corporate body

The Department of Natural and Cultural Affairs formed in 1975, as part of a general reorganization of the Government of the Northwest Territories. Functions relating to northern culture and the traditional way of life were brought together to create this department. Included in Department of Natural Cultural Affairs was the Fish and Wildlife Service that transferred from the Department of Economic Development; Recreation and Library Services that transferred from the Department of Local Government; and the Museum and Historical Programs that transferred from the Executive Secretariat.

The Department of Natural and Cultural Affairs was responsible for assisting residents in the Northwest Territories in pursuit of their culture, traditions, lifestyles and providing for the preservation of their way of life and the traditional pursuits of trapping and hunting through an effective game management program. The department managed the wildlife resources of the Northwest Territories and assisted people who were dependent on these resources to harvest wildlife in a way that would ensure continued availability of the resources. It also provided advice and financial and technical assistance to communities, sports organizations and cultural groups in the development and implementation of sports, recreation and cultural activities. A central library service and the development and operation of the Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre were also functions fulfilled by the Department of Natural and Cultural Affairs.

The Fish and Wildlife Service included the following programs: Big Game Management, Fisheries Development, Trapline Management and Environmental Management. This division was responsible for managing the wildlife resources of the Northwest Territories, as well as providing opportunities for northern people to pursue traditional hunting, trapping and fishing. Through these programs, management studies were conducted on caribou, polar bear, grizzly bear and bison in order to determine population levels. The Fish and Wildlife Service also assisted communities in harvesting caribou as a food source. The Fisheries Development program was concerned with the promotion and development of commercial fisheries and monitoring the harvesting of fish to ensure that the species was not exploited. The Trapline Management program emphasized training of young trappers through courses conducted by Fish and Wildlife officers and experienced trappers who taught trapping techniques, fur handling and marketing, bush living, survival skills, equipment care and preservation of game and fish. This program also operated a fur marketing service that allowed trappers to ship furs directly to auction houses in order to gain a higher financial return and worked closely with the Hunters and Trappers Association. The increased incidence of exploration and development in the north fostered a larger role for the Fish and Wildlife Service in environmental management. The Environmental Management program conducted environmental assessments in order to determine the impact development had on wildlife and to make recommendations to minimize the impact. In early 1976, responsibility for administering the Outpost Camp Program was turned over to the Fish and Wildlife Service and funding made available to implement the program throughout the territories. This program provided financial assistance to groups who wished to move back to the land and live off the natural resources available by hunting and trapping. Transportation costs, building materials, heating fuel and loans for food and supplies were made available through this program. It was hoped that eventually many of the outpost camps would become completely self-sufficient and would require minimum financial assistance. The Fish and Wildlife Service changed its name to the Wildlife Service in 1978. Its focus was the transferal of the administrative aspect of the resource harvesting assistance programs to the communities. In 1978, the first step taken in decentralizing the responsibility of the administration of trapper's incentive grants, trapper's assistance, community hunts, the fur marketing service and the outpost camp program to the regions. In some regions, the Hunters and Trappers Associations began to administer community hunts, the outpost camp program and trappers assistance programs. Wildlife Services continued to promote wildlife management by providing education programs and career opportunities and encouraged the conservation of local habitat through wildlife management studies.

The Recreation Division focused on encouraging local involvement at the community level in recreational activities and assisted recreation committees in planning and developing local recreation programs. The division offered leadership training in order to facilitate local involvement and was involved in offering territorial wide clinics in a variety of sports. A major activity was the organization of the participation of the Northwest Territories in the Canada Winter Games, Arctic Winter Games and Northern Games. The division participated in the Montreal Olympics in 1976, by sending Inuit and aboriginal performers to demonstrate cultural games and activities. It also assisted in the organization of Federation Sport North that supported the development of sport activities on a Territorial-wide basis and was involved in selecting the teams and athletes that would represent the Northwest Territories at the Canada Games and Arctic Winter Games. The Recreation Division was also responsible for developing and implementing the Portable Pool Swimming Program and introducing the National Coaching Development Program. In 1979-80, the Recreation Division was renamed Recreation and Cultural Programs in order to include cultural organizations, which were supported by the division through grants and financial assistance. This assistance was provided to aboriginal groups in order to encourage participation in cross-cultural recreation activities, such as Treaty Days Celebrations, and to demonstrate northern native cultural activities through cultural exchanges.

Library Services transferred from the Department of Local Government to the Department of Natural and Cultural Affairs in 1975. This service continued to implement its programs and to develop library services throughout the Territories. Library Services assisted local libraries by providing financial assistance for the provision of books and equipment and for hiring librarians. The Children's Program was developed and delivered through Library Services. This program was a reading project that consisted of books and cassettes that were provided to children through community libraries. Puppet shows, story hours and classroom sessions were also part of this program. The Government Library was also delivered under this service and provided information and research services to members of the Territorial Council and the staff of the government administration.

The Museum and Historical Program focused on the development, construction and operation of the Territorial Central Museum, later known as the Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre. The Museum and Historical Program implemented the Northwest Territories Museum Policy and provided a museum program for the preservation of artifacts and archival materials that depicted the way of life and events in the Northwest Territories, as well as protected the archaeological and historical sites in the Northwest Territories. The museum collected, produced exhibits and offered an extension service in support of community and regional museums such as the Northern Life Museum in Fort Smith and the Inuit Museum in Igloolik. A Northwest Territories Advisory Council was appointed by the Commissioner in 1976 which was to provide advice, guidance and direction in the overall programming of the museum, historical sites and archives and provided a liaison with other interested associations and individuals. In 1977, the first archaeological project through the Prince of Wales Museum was initiated to survey historical remains on Dealy Island. The issuing of archaeological permits would become a function of the Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre after it officially opened, as well as the fabrication of traveling exhibits and the circulation of exhibits from other museums. Between 1978-1979, a Territorial Archives was developed in order to preserve the documentary records of the history of the Northwest Territories. The Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre officially opened April 3, 1979 as a museum facility concerned with collection, exhibition, education/extension, archival and research activities. The Museum and Historical Programs Division also administered a program of grants to community museums and historical societies, as well as provided advice, assistance and technical services. The Grants for Northern Historical Development, which provided funding to the three major northern ethnic organizations to encourage preservation of native traditions, culture and history were also delivered by the Museum and Historical Program, as was a plaquing program that commemorated northern historical sites.

In 1979, the Department of Natural and Cultural Affairs dissolved. The Wildlife Service Division transferred to the Department of Renewable Resources; the Recreation Division transferred to the Department of Local Government; the Library Services Division and Museum and Historical Programs were transferred to the Department of Justice and Public Services.

Boulva, Jean
Person

Jean Boulva was born in Montreal and completed his Bachelor of Science degree from the Université de Montréal in 1968. He continued his studies at Dalhousie University, Halifax, earning a master’s degree in marine biology and a doctorate in biology. Dr. Boulva was employed as a professor of marine ecology at Université Laval, Regional Science Director for the Quebec Region in the federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), then Director of the Maurice Lamontagne Institute (MLI) in Mont-Joli, Quebec. Dr. Boulva is the author of numerous publications, has lectured on marine biology, served as a board member for teaching and research agencies, and been a guest expert on advisory committees.

During the summers of 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, and 1968, Jean Boulva worked as a summer student for the Fisheries Research Board of Canada onboard the M. V. Salvelinus, a 12 meter research vessel.

In the summer of 1964, along with Captain Ingram Gidney and summer student David Patriquin, he was directed to prepare and sail the M. V. Salvelinus some 1000 kilometers from Cape Parry to Cambridge Bay. Jean took many photographs on the journey north, while staying in Inuvik for nine days (June 18-27), and while delayed in Cape Parry nearly 2 months (June 27-August 16) due to poor ice conditions. He also spent time on bird and plant studies. At the time, Cape Parry had a church, Hudson’s Bay store, and was the site of a DEW line station, PIN-Main. In later years, the population of Cape Parry relocated to Paulatuk, further south. They travelled from Cape Parry via Coppermine and southern Coronation Gulf, arriving on August 25 in Cambridge Bay, where they studied oceanography and marine fish populations until beginning their return trip on September 19.

In 1965, the same team returned for the summer (June 27-September 11). They conducted oceanographic and fishery work first in Cambridge Bay and then in Bathurst Inlet (August 9-12), and traveled alongside the patrol vessel R.C.M.P. Spalding from Cambridge Bay to Baychimo (Bay Chimo). They took a side trip to a field camp at Keyhole Lake (50 kilometers northwest of Cambridge Bay) to study a landlocked arctic char population.

From July 2 to September 17, 1966, Ingram Gidney, Jean Boulva, and David Curtis (also a summer student) conducted research in Cambridge Bay and at a site in Dease Strait near Starvation Cove (69° 09' 41"N 105° 58' 50"W, 36 kilometers west of Cambridge Bay), where they built a small laboratory to support a multi-year study of arctic marine waters and small arctic lakes. On August 19, the trio visited a commercial char fishery at Wellington Bay.

From June 19 to September 25, 1967, Ingram Gidney, Jean Boulva, Steve McColl, and David Curtis (also summer students), and Moses Koihok (a local Inuit assistant) continued the research from 1966 in Cambridge Bay and Dease Strait near Starvation Cove. During the sea ice breakup period, David Curtis and Steve McColl coordinated scientific field work at Starvation Cove while Moses Koihok, Jean Boulva and Ingram Gidney worked on fisheries, oceanography and preparing the M.V. Salvelinus in Cambridge Bay.

From June 16 to September 8, 1968, a larger group carried out scientific research, including Ingram Gidney, two Fisheries Research Board of Canada (F.R.B.C.) technicians (Marsha Joynt and Shirley Leach), two F.R.B.C. scientists (Ken Muth and Jay Wacasey), the scientist head of the M.V. Salvelinus research program (J. Gerald Hunter), as well as two summer students, Gary Atkinson and Jean Boulva. The group carried out studies of marine and freshwater productivity near Starvation Cove, and fisheries research in Cambridge Bay. The group took a trip to Bathurst Inlet “with a lot of bad weather from August 5 to 11”; on August 11 Ingram Gidney departed due to an arm injury; on August 16 the vessel’s transmission broke down and became inoperable until the end of the season.

Corporate body

The Department of Renewable Resources originated from the Department of Natural and Cultural Affairs' Wildlife Service Division in 1979.

The Department of Renewable Resources' responsibilities included wildlife, fisheries, water, forestry, land management and environmental protection. It managed wildlife and forest resources and ensured that the option of resource harvesting was maintained as a lifestyle and economic option for future generations in the Northwest Territories. The department was responsible for the support of the renewable resource economy and acted as the management and regulatory authority for wildlife and environmental protection. Furthermore, it had key responsibilities in planning for use of land and inland water resources. It participated in a wide range of Federal/Territorial committees and boards that coordinated and advised on land, inland water and offshore regulation and management programs. The department also advised and provided a territorial perspective on other areas of renewable resource management where the primary authority remained with the Federal Government.

Initially, the Department of Renewable Resources was made up of five divisions: the Directorate, Wildlife Service, Environmental Services, Energy Conservation and the Science Advisory Board of the Northwest Territories.

The Directorate Division provided overall direction, corporate planning, administrative support and coordination for the programs of the department, including the development of departmental policies. This division advised the Minister on the state of the programs and acted as a liaison with other government departments and organizations as required. The Directorate was responsible for the work of the Traditional Knowledge Working Group. The Directorate was also responsible for providing advice and support to the Aboriginal Rights and Constitutional Development Secretariat on all renewable resource related negotiations.

The Wildlife Services Division, later known as the Wildlife Management Division, was responsible for implementing programs designed to assess the status and productivity of wildlife populations. It provided advice on the limits of sustainable yield and land use activities as they affected wildlife populations. This division encouraged the conservation of the natural habitat, particularly for species upon which Northwest Territories residents depended. Effort focused primarily upon caribou, polar bear, gyrfalcon, and musk ox, with secondary projects that dealt with moose, wood bison, Dall's sheep, and fur-bearing animals. The division enforced quotas, issued licenses and permits, conducted research, conducted surveys and implemented tagging programs. Prior to the creation of the Field Services Division in 1982, the Wildlife Services Division also delivered funding and provided grants to the Hunters' and Trappers' Associations, as well as delivered wildlife management and awareness programs through the schools.

The Environmental Services sector administered the Environmental Protection Ordinance, the Pesticide Ordinance and Clean Air Act of Canada and the Scientist Ordinance in the Northwest Territories. This division was responsible for the inspection and monitoring of potential polluting incidents, the development of environmental emergency plans and response to environmental emergencies. The name of this division changed to the Pollution Control Division in 1984.

The Energy Conservation activity provided support services to the Federal/Territorial Energy Conservation Management Committee and developed public awareness pertaining to energy conservation. This activity was transferred to Government Services in 1981.

The Science Advisory Board was concerned with the development of a resident scientific community capable of planning and conducting northern research so that the priorities of northern people were fully realized. The Board's objective was to encourage the application of science, engineering and technology to improve life and living conditions for people in the Northwest Territories. The Science Advisory Board changed its name to the Science Institute of the Northwest Territories in 1986. In 1989-90, the Science Institute transferred from the Department of Renewable Resources and became an agency that reported directly to the Executive.

The Environmental Planning and Assessment Division operated between 1981-1985. It provided the departmental focus for the integration of renewable resource management programs and managed the environmental assessment and strategic planning response for major resource development projects. This division concentrated on land use planning, water management, environmental monitoring/surveillance, management of environmentally sensitive areas and was involved in formal regulatory hearings, such as the Beaufort Sea Environmental Assessment and Review Board hearings. When this division disbanded in 1985, the 'Planning' part of the division became the Policy and Planning Division.

The Policy and Planning Division was responsible for the following: providing advice to the Deputy Minister on matters of resource management, developing program evaluation systems, providing assistance to other divisions in the development of policy, developing public consultation strategies, coordinating the participation of the department in the formal assessment and review of resource development projects, coordinating the departmental involvement in the negotiation and implementation of Aboriginal Land Claims and coordinating the department's legislative requirements. Policy and Planning was involved in the negotiations of delegating inland fisheries management from the Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans to the Department of Renewable Resources.

The Field Services Division was added to the Department of Renewable Resources in 1982 and it operated until 1987. It was created out of some of the services delivered by the Wildlife Services Division. In 1987, the name was changed to Conservation Education and Resource Development, although there was no change in the division's mandate or programs. Initially, the division provided advice and support to the entire department and emphasis was placed on public information and educational programs to make northern residents aware of the departmental programs and priorities. By the mid-1980's, the division provided conservation education, assistance to renewable resource harvesters and was responsible for developing the renewable resource economy. Major assistance programs were designed to support the hunting and trapping economy and an emphasis was placed on the fur industry and assisting trappers in acquiring and learning how to use new trapping systems. In addition, support was provided to organizations of resource users to enable them to become more involved in wildlife management. Programs such as trapper education, outpost camp programs, fur sales, firearm safety and conservation education were delivered by this division. In 1986, this division became involved with the Federal Government and Government of the Northwest Territories' Department of Economic Development and Tourism in the fish-stocking program.

The Environmental Services Division became the Pollution Control division in1984; the division's main task was maintaining the high standard of environmental quality in the North through the administration of the Environmental Protection Ordinance and the Pesticide Ordinance, which monitored and regulated industrial, commercial and municipal activities. This division also participated in joint regulatory committees such as the Arctic Waters Advisory Committee, Regional Ocean Dumping Advisory Committee and the Technical Advisory Committee to the Northwest Territories' Water Board. The name of this division changed to the Environmental Protection Division in 1994.

The Land Use Planning Division, later known as the Regional Land Use Planning Division in 1989, emerged in 1987 and was responsible for the coordination and management of the Government's participation in the Federal/Territorial Land Use Planning Program. It was the division's responsibility to ensure that the best use of land and resources were represented in the planning process.

In 1988, the Forestry Division, later known as Forest Management, was transferred to the department from the Federal Government. This division was responsible for the management and use of forest resources through the development of forest management plans that addressed how to develop the timber resources and protect them at the same time. In addition, this division developed and delivered at silvicultural program that was concerned with improving existing forests and establishing new forests through harvesting. The monitoring of insects and disease and issuing timber permits and licenses were also the responsibility of this division.

The Fire Operations Division was also added to the department in 1988; it was responsible for the coordination of the department's fire control planning and operations through establishing and implementing fire management plans according to territorial policy. The division was involved in fire prevention activities and training and delivered a public information program on forest fire management. In 1992, the Fire Operations Division changed its name to Forest Fire Management

The Field Operations Division emerged in 1989 and delivered all departmental programs at the regional and community level. There were Field Operations staff in most communities and they acted as the main interface between the department and the resource users. The staff provided advice and assistance to the Hunters' and Trappers' Associations, assisted resource users in resource development and resource use activities and assisted and advised communities in pollution control, fire suppression and wildlife management studies and enforced renewable resource legislation. In addition, this division interpreted and coordinated the department's responsibilities under land claims and worked with claimant organizations at the regional and local level.

In 1997, the Department of Renewable Resources amalgamated with Economic Development and Tourism to form the Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development.

Corporate body

The Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development was created in 1996 from the amalgamation of three separate departments: Renewable Resources, Economic Development and Tourism, and Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources.

The Department of Renewable Resources' responsibilities included wildlife, fisheries, water, forestry, land management and environmental protection. It managed wildlife and forest resources and ensured that the option of resource harvesting was maintained as a lifestyle and economic option for future generations in the Northwest Territories. The department was responsible for the support of the renewable resource economy and acted as the management and regulatory authority for wildlife and environmental protection. Furthermore, it had key responsibilities in planning for use of land and inland water resources. It participated in a wide range of Federal/Territorial committees and boards that coordinated and advised on land, inland water and offshore regulation and management programs. The department also advised and provided a territorial perspective on other areas of renewable resource management where the primary authority remained with the Federal Government.

The Department of Economic Development and Tourism was responsible for the promotion and development of businesses within the Northwest Territories in order to create jobs and incomes for northerners. This was facilitated through the provision of financial assistance such as grants and loans, technical support and employment training programs. The department targeted development of employment opportunities within the arts and crafts, small business, gas and mineral, renewable resources and tourism sectors. The Department of Economic Development and Tourism was also responsible for the promotion and development of the Northwest Territories as a tourism destination, through marketing, development of tourist facilities and the territorial parks system.

The Department of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources was responsible for the management of the development and use of non-renewable and energy resources for the maximum social and economic benefit of the NWT. This was done primarily by securing a positive and stable investment climate for non-renewable resource development. Through competent and effective organization, the Department managed the development of NWT mineral, oil and gas and other energy resources, taking a lead role in the negotiations for the transfer of oil and gas management responsibilities from the federal government. Policies and programs were put in place to ensure the efficient generation and use of energy resources. Although the Department influenced how energy was used in the NWT, it could not determine such use. A substantial portion of the Department's budget was devoted to the Mineral Initiatives Program, which was funded under the Economic Development Agreement (EDA) in place with the Federal Government. The Department managed in-house GNWT energy management training programs, the energy management communications plan, and, at the time of amalgamation, was in the process of implementing various energy efficiency and alternative energy initiatives.

MLA Stephen Kakfwi was responsible for the amalgamation of Renewable Resources, Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, and Economic Development and Tourism to create the new Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development (RWED) in 1996. RWED carries forward many of the responsibilities held individually by the three former departments. Priorities include promoting economic self-sufficiency and growth through the sustainable development of natural resources and enhancing the creation of new, sustainable opportunities in the traditional and wage economies. The Department manages and protects the condition, quality, diversity and abundance of natural resources and the environment. Their aim is to improve economic conditions by enhancing the creation of new, sustainable jobs in the NWT and maximize the number of residents that fill both new and existing jobs. The Department helps to create a positive business environment that will attract investment capital and stimulate investment, trade and manufacturing in the NWT. Collaborations with aboriginal organizations and the federal government create the potential for the establishment of arrangements for industry access to lands and resources.

For the 1997-1998 fiscal year, the Department was subdivided into four areas: Resource Management and Economic Development, Corporate Management, Forest Management, and Environmental Protection Services.

The Resource Management and Economic Development area consisted of the Trade and Investment, Wildlife and Fisheries, Minerals, Oil and Gas, and Parks and Tourism divisions, the Business Credit Corporation (BCC) and the NWT Development Corporation. Trade and Investment provided advice and support to business, arts and crafts, manufacturing, trade and investment and marketing sectors of the economy. They also provided support to the Business Credit Corporation and the NWT Development Corporation. Wildlife and Fisheries was responsible for maintaining populations of wildlife, encouraging sustainable development practices, providing assistance programs to promote a hunting and trapping economy, and supporting resource user organizations to enable them to become more involved in wildlife management. Wildlife and Fisheries was also responsible for developing plans and programs for the sustainable development of the fisheries resource, including the administration of the sport fishery. The Minerals, Oil and Gas Division worked to coordinate the transfer of provincial-type responsibilities from the federal government to the GNWT with respect to mineral, oil and gas resources. It also developed strategies for increased economic benefit from mineral, oil and gas development and worked with communities to realize opportunities from resource extraction activities. Parks and Tourism provided for the development, operation and maintenance of public tourism facilities such as parks, visitor centres, interpretive displays, and promotional signs. It also promoted strategic tourism development by providing guidance to NWT Arctic Tourism.

The Business Credit Corporation (BCC) was a territorial crown corporation, with a board of directors of up to 12 persons, accountable to the Minister of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development, who had the power to decide on loans and guarantees. The objective of the BCC was to stimulate economic development and employment in the Northwest Territories by making loans to business enterprises, guaranteeing loans made by financial institutions to businesses and by providing bonds to resident business enterprises. The BCC was established as an independent lending corporation, taking over for the Business Loan Fund. It is responsible for making business loans to northern businesses where conventional lending institutions are not prepared to participate. Its role, therefore, was as a blend of being a last resort lender and a developmental agency to provide financial support for higher risk entrepreneurial ventures.

The NWT Development Corporation was established by legislation in 1990 to promote the economic objectives of the GNWT by creating employment and income for Northerners, stimulating growth of businesses in the North, and promoting economic diversification and stability. The Corporation is able to meet these objectives by providing direct investment and operating subsidies to companies through one of three types of economic involvement: subsidiary companies, venture investments, and project and business development. The Corporation may also provide small contributions for businesses to develop products, markets or business plans. These contributions are often provided on a cost-sharing basis.

In 1999-2000, two additional divisions were added to the scope of the Resource Management and Economic Development area: Community Economic Development Services, and Diamond Projects. Community Economic Development Services coordinated the Department's Community Economic Development Strategy, which was aimed at stimulating increased private sector and community-based job creation activity. It provided services to the Business Development Centres as well as strategic planning, research, program management, and training support to regions and communities. The Diamond Projects Division was responsible for addressing the need for diamond value-added industries in the North, including sorting, cutting, polishing, grading and marketing initiatives. The Division worked to develop programs to address developing a skilled work force, taxation issues, financing, industry regulations, distribution systems, marketing, and security. In 2001-2002, the Investment and Economic Analysis Division was created from the responsibilities left by the Trade and Investment and Community Economic Development Divisions. The Division was responsible for providing advice, coordination and support to the business, arts and crafts, trade and investment, manufacturing and marketing sectors of society as well as a being a link to international businesses and organizations. Investment and Economic Analysis also provided support to the BCC and the NWT Development Corporation, making recommendations concerning their planning and operations.

In 1997-1998, the Corporate Management area consisted of the Directorate, Policy and Legislation, Strategic Planning, Finance and Administration, Human Resource Management and Information Systems divisions. The Directorate, responsible for the overall direction of departmental programs, consisted of the Deputy Minister, Assistant Deputy Ministers and the Executive Director of Resource Management and Economic Development. The Policy and Legislation Division provided policy, legislative, planning and communications support to enable the Department to respond to issues of concern to the NWT pertinent to the Department's mandate. Strategic Planning researched, developed and maintained an overall economic framework for the NWT as a basis for assessment of departmental programs and services. The Finance and Administration Division provided financial management and administrative services to the Department, including budget development and control services, financial transaction authorization, and financial reporting. The Human Resource Management Division provided staffing services to the Department, administering affirmative action and in-service training programs. This function provided senior management with personnel information, recommendations on human resource issues and the development of monitoring systems and procedures. The Information Systems Division provided access to remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS), coordinating and compiling databases for the public and private sectors. It also provided computer services to the Department, including training and support for hardware and software use.

In 1998-1999, the responsibilities of the Finance and Administration, Information Systems, and Human Resource Management divisions of the Corporate Management Section were replaced by the Corporate Services Division. The new Community Economic Development Services Division assumed the role of economic and strategic planning for regional and community development. It also provided community economic development assistance to the regions. In 1999-2000, the Corporate Management Section was comprised of the Directorate, the Corporate Services Division, the Information Services, and the Policy, Legislation & Communication Division. Policy, Legislation and Communication effectively assumed the responsibilities of the Strategic Planning and Policy and Legislation divisions, while Information Services took over the remote sensing and GIS functions of the Corporate Services Division.

In 1997-1998, the Forest Management area consisted of the Forest Development and Forest Fire Management divisions. The Forest Development Division administered the development of the forest resources of the NWT. Timber permits issued helped to control harvest operations. Forest inventories were prepared to identify the location and size of forest resources. Silviculture programs, insect and disease monitoring in trees, and tree growth research were ways in which forest resources were assessed. The Forest Fire Management Division was responsible for the provision of forest fire management services on forested areas, including the protection of people, property and forest areas from wildfire and the use of prescribed burning to meet forest management and land use objectives. In 1998-1999, the Forest Fire Management Division became known as the Fire Suppression Division. In 2001-2002, the Presuppression and Program Management Division was added to the Forest Management area. Presuppression and Program Management was responsible for supporting forest management initiatives at the Regional and Territorial levels. This included forest fire presuppression, telecommunications and systems services, forest science research and planning, training and standards and the provision of supply and services in support of the programs.

The Environmental Protection Services area consisted of the Environmental Protection and Energy Management divisions. The Environmental Protection Division was responsible for programs in the areas of air quality, hazardous substances, waste management and impact analysis including monitoring and regulating activities that may impact the environment, as well as education and research. Energy Management was responsible for the development of economic energy projects with a community focus. Program areas include energy conservation, energy efficient technologies, alternative local energy source development and community energy planning. In 2001-2002, the Program Management Division was added. It was responsible for the planning, coordination, administration and management of divisional resources and programs.

On April 1, 2005, the Department was split in half; two new departments, Industry, Trade and Investment (ITI), and Environment and Natural Resources (ENR), were created.

Largent, Bill
Person

Bill Largent lived from 1920 to 1951 in the Yellowknife and Hay River area. Bill's parents were Charles Largent and Estelle [maiden name unknown]. In the summer, they travelled north and traded furs. In winter, they ran a trading post, the location of which is unknown to the donor.

Growing up in the north, Bill learned to speak a multitude of Aboriginal and Inuit languages, and often assisted the RCMP with translations. As a teenager he had his own dog team and worked a trap line. As an adult, he owned and operated a gravel truck out of Hay River. Here he met his wife, Judy Rabchak Geyer. In 1951, Bill and Judy sold the gravel truck and moved to Vancouver Island to be closer to family. They visited Yellowknife again in 1970, but resided in British Columbia for the rest of their days. Bill passed away in Nanaimo on July 25th, 1981.

Corporate body

In 1973, the Department of Industry and Development was renamed the Department of Economic Development and was restructured to respond more effectively to the traditional and modern economies of the Northwest Territories.

The Department of Economic Development was responsible for promoting and developing economic growth in the Northwest Territories. In addition, the department was responsible for establishing employment opportunities for all Northern residents and assisting the indigenous people to participate in and benefit equally from the increased scale of economic activity throughout the Northwest Territories. The department encouraged and provided for the development of the tourism industry at the local level through grant programs aimed at communities that would assist them in realizing the economic benefits of tourism. It also provided training in management and hospitality, developed public tourism facilities and promoted traveling in the north through advertising and other promotional material. The Department of Economic Development was also involved in the promotion of commercial and industrial development by encouraging the establishment of primary and secondary industries that would provide economic benefit to northern residents. Furthermore, the department participated with the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs in planning for the exploration and development of non-renewable resources for the benefit of residents of the Northwest Territories.

The Tourism Division consisted of the Development and Promotion sections. The Development section was involved in the expansion and control of the tourism plant and services. It developed and regulated public tourist facilities and encouraged remote indigenous community involvement in the tourism industry by providing training and grant programs that assisted in the construction of tourist accommodations or renovations to existing facilities. The Promotion section promoted visitor travel to and within the Northwest Territories through advertising, publicity, trade shows and provision of travel counseling services.

The Industry and Commerce Division was made up of five sections; the Business Development section was responsible for identifying economic opportunities throughout the Northwest Territories and for conducting feasibility studies with regard to such opportunities and the encouragement of investment to take advantage of these opportunities. The Financial Assistance section processed and reviewed applications for loans from loan funds administered by the department. This included the Small Business Loan Fund, the Eskimo Loan Fund, and the Fisherman's Loan Fund and in collaboration with the Federal Department of Indian and Northern Affairs-the Indian Development Fund. The Project Operations section provided financial control and management monitoring and supervision to the range of productive enterprises for which the department was responsible, including the sale of finished products. The Co-operative section assisted in the development of co-operatives, regulated and monitored the operation of co-operatives and provided advisory support to individual co-operatives and to the Canadian Arctic Co-operative Federation. The Arts and Crafts section provided support and information to artists and artisans in how to do business with dealers and collectors inside and outside the Northwest Territories.

The Game Management Division was made up of five sections. The Trapline Management section planned, developed and implemented educational and management programs and projects designed to maximize the utilization of the fur resource and to increase the economic return to the trapper. The Big Game Management section planned and implemented programs that properly managed and utilized the big game resources and protected these resources. The Research section planned, developed and implemented a research program in support of trapline and big game management and conducted studies on endangered animal and game species. The Regulations section developed and enforced game laws and regulations and the Fishery Development section assisted in the development of a strong sport and commercial fishing industry that would benefit northern residents. In 1975, the Game Management Division was transferred to the Division of Natural and Cultural Affairs.

The Petroleum Resource Development Project was moved from the Executive Secretariat to the Department of Economic Development in 1975. This project group provided a coordination and liaison service to the departments of the Government of the Northwest Territories on matters relating to the Mackenzie Valley Gas Pipeline proposal, the Mackenzie Highway and the Beaufort Delta Oil Project. The Project Group also had overall management responsibility for the Hire North Project. This project was established to provide training and employment opportunities on the Mackenzie Highway construction project, for the indigenous people of the area.

The Employment Division transferred from the Department of Local Government to the Department of Economic Development in 1975. This division was responsible for determining needs, developing strategies and administering programs directed at increasing employment levels and employability of Northern residents. This division provided an employment and training placement service, offered advice on program needs and created strategies to overcome employment problems of Northerners. Furthermore, the division developed, coordinated and administered programs, operated employment counselling services throughout the Northwest Territories and developed and administered programs designed to solve short or long term unemployment problems at the community level. This division delivered the Apprenticeship program, which delivered programs for developing skilled tradesmen. In addition, the Territorial Employment Record and Information System (TERIS) was also administered by this division. This system developed a manpower and skills inventory for the Northwest Territories labour force which was utilized as a vehicle between labour supply and labour demand by ensuring employment opportunities be made available to potential northern candidates.

In 1976, the Tourism Division and some sections of the Industry and Commerce Division combined services and formed the Business Services and Tourism Division. The Financial Assistance sector provided assistance through the Small Business Loan Fund and Eskimo Loan Fund and provided counselling for applicants seeking loans. The Co-op Development section provided general business counselling to new or developing businesses and regulated and monitored the operation of co-operatives and provided advisory services to co-operatives and to the Canadian Arctic Co-operative Federation. This division also promoted travel in the Northwest Territories through promotional trade shows and advertising and also developed tourist facilities and maintained parks in the Northwest Territories.

The Project and Marketing Division also emerged at this time and was responsible for the planning, development and overall management of the department's commercial, industrial and crafts projects, as well as for the marketing activity. The Arts and Crafts program provided development, planning and counselling services to Inuit and aboriginal artists and artisans and published information about northern arts and crafts to dealers and collectors within and outside the Northwest Territories. The program also focussed on training local people to assume a managerial role in craft operations. The Marketing program worked with the Arts and Crafts activity to assist in the marketing of finished products and to exhibit northern arts and crafts and trade shows, events and through catalogues.

The Research and Evaluation Division was responsible for providing economic research services within the government and to other organizations and individuals in the private sector. This division researched and planned new economic development projects and promoted the development of resident businesses. In addition, this activity prepared economic statistics, conducted economic analysis of existing and proposed projects and provided technical information on non-renewable resources development.

In 1977, the Department of Economic Development was renamed the Department of Economic Development and Tourism.

Corporate body

The Department of Industry and Development operated from 1967 until 1973; it was responsible for promoting the economic growth of the Northwest Territories. This included encouraging and providing for the development of the tourism industry at the local level through grant programs aimed at communities that would help them realize the economic benefit of tourism. It also provided training in management and hospitality, developed public tourism facilities, and promoted the north through advertising locally, at travel shows and through promotional materials such as maps and guides. This division was also involved in the promotion of commercial and industrial development by encouraging the establishment of primary and secondary industries that would provide economic benefit to northern residents. For example, they were involved in the expansion of the arts and crafts industry, the development of the fishing and lumber industry, as well as the development and supervision of cooperatives. The function of Game Management, which was also handled through this department, provided for the rational management of all game resources in the Northwest Territories. This was achieved by planning and implementing educational, research, big game and trap line management programs that were aimed at maximizing the utilization of the game resources of the North. This division also assisted indigenous people that still depended on natural renewable resources for their livelihood, by developing and enforcing game laws and regulations.

In 1969, the Department of Industry and Development headquarters organization was completed. Progress was made in coordinating and integrating the various programs in the fields of Tourism, Game Management and Industrial Development. As part of the new headquarters organizational structure, a small Administrative Section was established, to centralize administrative support for the department and to relieve program managers from routine administrative and accounting responsibilities. A second small headquarters element, the Research and Planning Section was also established in 1969 to carry out long-range planning for the Department and to assist in integrating departmental planning with that of the other departments of the Government of the Northwest Territories. This section was responsible for an analysis of the forest products industry, commercial fishing industry and the labour and material elements of the Northern Housing Program.

The Tourism Division was initially a program that was delivered by the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs and Northern Development. In 1968, this program was transferred from the Federal Government to the Department of Industry and Development of the Government of the Northwest Territories. The transfer of this program marked the establishment of organized tourism promotion in the Northwest Territories. This division consisted of three operating sections: Promotion, Development and Research. The polar bear symbol was introduced at this time as well as a series of promotional literature about the Northwest Territories. The division developed a policy designed to encourage greater activity and support of the tourism industry at the community level. This policy and supporting program enabled communities to play a more effective role in developing local services and in improving the reception and information services for visitors. The Tourism Division provided grant programs to remote indigenous communities to help them realize the economic benefit of the tourism industry. The program provided financial assistance for the construction of accommodation or renovations to existing buildings. The division also provided management training to members of the community and to lodges. Hospitality seminars, designed by Travel Industry Association of Canada, were delivered and the Visitor's Service Centre at the Alberta-Northwest Territories Border was opened. The public tourism facilities development program was initiated; it encouraged the development of day use and picnic areas along the Dempster Highway and the proposed Mackenzie Highway. The Tourism Division participated in travel shows in the United States and southern Canada and in conjunction with the Canadian Government, packaged tours of the Northwest Territories were offered. This division also published the Explorer's Guide and Official Travel Map. This division was successful in offering the first commercially packaged tours of the Northwest Territories and in 1971, assisted in launching the boat "Norweta," which brought group tours to the river settlements for the first time.

The Department of Industry and Development was responsible for identifying and developing employment-generating opportunities. It was involved in identifying areas of demand where opportunity existed for service support and secondary industries capable of providing meaningful wage employment to the residents of the Northwest Territories. An effort was made to provide management advice to small businesses, assist indigenous people in becoming involved in the wage economy, and permit them access to managerial positions. The division delivered employment oriented training courses such as the Junior Office Managers Course which was designed to produce junior managers for governmental and private enterprise. The department was instrumental in the formation of the Northwest Territories Chamber of Commerce in 1972.

The Industry Development Division also focused on preparing for the accelerated economic development in the Mackenzie Valley due to possible construction of the gas pipeline and construction of the Mackenzie Highway. The Research and Planning section of this division maintained close ties with Federal Government agencies and provided input into the planning for the pipeline and highway to ensure that the interests of northern residents would be protected.

The Industry Development Division was also involved in the identification and promotion of viable enterprises capable of being operated by, and providing employment for, northern residents. In one instance, a Lumber Grade Stamping Agency was established to up-grade the quality of lumber produced in the Northwest Territories. The division also helped to overhaul the boat shop in Hay River and relocated the Jean Marie River Sawmill. A particular emphasis was placed on the development of the commercial fishing industry. The division organized the Fisherman's Loan Approval Board that provided financial assistance and loans to fisherman who wished to purchase boats. The Freshwater Fish Marketing Corporation was established and this corporation assumed purchasing and marketing responsibilities of freshwater fish. The fish packing facilities at Lac La Martre were completed and the Wellington Bay Arctic Char Fishery was overhauled and put in good working condition. Major commercial fisheries operated on Great Slave Lake, Lac La Martre and Cambridge Bay. The establishment of a liaison with Central Region Fisheries Service and Environment Canada it was ensured that major commercial fishing operations in the Northwest Territories would be monitored to ensure a long-term fishery development program would be followed.

The Commercial Development program was delivered through the Industry Development Division. This program administered loans for business ventures, such as the Eskimo Loan Fund, Indian Economic Development Fund and Small Business Loan Fund. The department assumed responsibility for the cooperatives, therefore the development emphasis was placed on consolidating and strengthening the cooperatives. In 1971, the Canadian Arctic Co-operative Federation Limited was established as the coordinating body for all cooperatives in the Northwest Territories. In preparation for the establishment of the Federation, a cooperative education program was conducted and training program implemented for groups who wished to develop into co-operatives. An educational program on credit unions was also instituted. It was hoped that these initiatives would result in economic gains for aboriginal peoples.

Furthermore, the Industrial Development Division conducted research studies in order to determine potential markets for northern arts and crafts. A review was made of existing arts and crafts projects to determine methods of increasing production and provide additional income for the producers. This division also facilitated the promotion of northern arts and crafts. For example, the Masterworks Exhibition that was organized by the Canadian Eskimo Art Council was supported financially by this department and went on a world tour with showings in major art centers in the United States and Europe. Interest in northern arts and crafts was raised through the Pangnirtung weaving project and Baker Lake print program. The ultimate goal of the division was to facilitate the transfer of ownership of the Canadian Arctic Producers from the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, into the hands of northern producers.

The Game Management Division of the Department of Industry and Development oversaw the management of wildlife resources. A Fur Marketing Service was initiated to assist trappers wishing to take advantage of the services of the large fur auction houses. The Trappers Assistance Program provided repayable loans to enable the trapper to purchase supplies and equipment at the beginning of the trapping season. A Trapper Education Program aimed at encouraging the use of humane traps and assisted making these traps available. Guide Training Schools were conducted, as well as courses to interest young people in the trapping profession. The Game Management Officer Training Program was implemented in 1972 and sought to train northerners to be Game Management Officers and thereby eliminate the need to recruit from Southern Canada. The Game Management Division was also responsible for the development and enforcement of meaningful game laws and regulations. This included a caribou and polar bear tagging program aimed at maintaining the harvest of polar bear and caribou within safe limits and provided biological and management information for maintaining wildlife in appropriate numbers. The Program of Organized Settlement Caribou Hunts was also introduced by this division and assisted settlements in obtaining meat for their use.

In 1973, the Department of Industry and Development was renamed the Department of Economic Development and was restructured to respond more readily and effectively to the growing demands of the modern and traditional economies of the Northwest Territories.

Field, Poole
Person

Poole Field was a trader, trapper and prospector in the Yukon and Nahanni Butte region. He was born near Regina in approximately 1880. He joined the Royal Northwest Mounted Police (RNWMP) as a young man and transferred to the Yukon during the gold rush in the late 1890s. After three years, Field left the RNWMP and went to Alaska for about five years. He returned to the Yukon and during this time, he met and married Mary Atkinson (nee Lafferty). Field made at least one trip into the Nahanni region in 1905 but returned to the Yukon. Mary and Poole moved to the Nahanni Butte region in approximately 1914 after coming into the possession of a letter written by Martin Jorgenson claiming he had found gold. In 1915 or 1916, Field and his companions found the remains of Jorgenson at his burned cabin near Virginia Falls. According to Dick Turner, author of the book "Nahanni", Field spoke Cree and Slavey fluently and was an excellent woodsman. In approximately 1924, Field began operating as an independent trader and ran a store at Trout Lake for three years before returning to Nahanni Butte where he operated an independent trading post from 1928 to about 1935. In the 1940s, Field worked as a river pilot during the summer and trapped during the winter seasons.

Andreasen, Ole
Person

Ole Andreasen came to the North on a whaling ship that was possibly captained by his brother. He was a trader who operated the trading post at Shingle Point in the Richardson Islands in the early 1930s for T.C. Pederson. He also had a post at Point Atkinson (Nuvoraq) in the early 1920s. He traveled with Vilhjalmur Steffanson on several of Steffanson's expeditions in the Canadian Arctic and owned the ship the 'Gladiator'. He married Susanna, also known as Atugpik and had two sons, David and Jasper.