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Authority record
Corporate body

The Department of Social Development was created in 1967 when the Government of the Northwest Territories was centralized in Yellowknife. The mandate of the Department was to provide social and health care services to Territorial residents. Originally, the Department had three divisions: Alcohol Education Program, Corrections Service and Probation Service. In 1969 the Probation Service was included in the scope of Corrections Services Division. Child Welfare, Medical Social Services and Rehabilitation, Social Assistance and Categorical Allowances were also added to the Department. Medical Social Services and Rehabilitation focused on the problems associated with illness and hospitalization as well as the special needs of aged, disabled and infirm. Correctional Services oversaw probation services, correctional institutions such as the Yellowknife Correctional Institution and the Baffin Correctional Centre in Frobisher Bay, the Correctional Camp until its closure in 1973, and the Juvenile Training Centre in Forth Smith. The Alcohol Education Program focused on individual counseling, referral and education, as well as broad-base community work on finding long-range answers to drug abuse problems. In 1970, Categorical Allowances was renamed Blindness and Disability Allowances. Child Welfare was created in 1970 due to the Jubinville Committee’s major recommendations; one of which was to integrate juvenile delinquency services with child welfare. In 1971, Health Insurance Services was transferred from the Territorial Secretary. HIS was responsible for carrying out the requirements of the Territorial Hospital Insurance Ordinance and the Medical Care Ordinance, both implemented in 1971. This enabled budgetary and funding changes for Territorial hospitals. Additionally, the Health Care Plan was created to provide health services for all Territorial residents. In 1972 Medical Social Services became Medical Social Services and Special Care. In 1973 the Department created the Community Social Services division. In 1974 the Alcohol and Drug Program was responsible for the Alcohol and Drug Co-ordinating Council, but did not list it as a responsibility past that year. In 1975 the blanket Special Services Division was created to manage the development, maintenance and coordination of community based social services in its divisions of Child Welfare, Juvenile Probation, Day Care, Homemaker Services, and Aged and Handicapped Services. By 1976 it only listed its divisions as being Child Welfare and Aged and Handicapped Services. In September 1977 the Department was renamed Health and Social Services.

Snare Lake Band Council
Corporate body

In 1991, the Snare Lake Education Committee formed a subcommittee to develop cultural programming for the children. The Committee wanted to interview elders and record the procedures of seasonal activity for both the men and women of Snare Lake. The photographs and interviews would then be used to develop in Dogrib and English a handbook on seasonal activities. One of the primary aims of the project and the handbook was to "promote, enhance and maintain the Dogrib language." The Education Committee successfully applied to the Government of the Northwest Territories' Cultural Affairs Program for funding to assist the Committee in completing the project.

Geological Survey of Canada
Corporate body

In September 1841, the Legislature of the Province of Canada (the area that is now the southern parts of Ontario and Quebec) passed a resolution "that a sum not exceeding 1,500 sterling be granted to Her Majesty to defray the probable expense in causing a Geological Survey of the Province to be made." This resolution gave birth the following year to the Geological Survey of Canada (known widely as the Survey or GSC), Canada's first scientific agency and one of its oldest government organizations. The decision to undertake a geological survey was based on the realization that the development of a competitive industrial economy in Canada would depend on a viable mining industry. It was necessary to conduct a geological assessment to determine if Canada had the resource base to support such an industry.

William Edmond Logan was appointed the Survey's first director on April 14, 1841. One of the most important accomplishments of the Survey under Logan was the publication in 1863 of the Geology of Canada, a 983-page book, which represented all of the work the Survey had accomplished up to that date.

By the time of Confederation in 1867, the Geological Survey was widely recognized as the main contributor to the establishment of a viable mining industry in Canada, yet the Survey had performed its job without any funding stability. Finally, the government recognized the Survey's importance, and it was moved from Montreal to the new capital, Ottawa to be closer to other government organizations and Parliament.

With Alfred Selwyn, following in Logan's footsteps, the next surge of exploratory surveys took place in the west and the north. A larger staff was required and with newly secured funding, Selwyn was able to build up his staff from six parties in the field in 1870 to fourteen in 1890. That same year, Parliament passed an act making the Geological Survey a separate department of the government, reporting to the Minister of the Interior. The act also stipulated that scientific officers of the Survey should have post-secondary training in science.

In 1895, after 26 years as Director, George M. Dawson succeeded Selwyn. Dawson was permanently recognized for his contributions to the exploration of northern British Columbia and the Yukon; Dawson City was named in his honour. Dawson died suddenly in 1901 and was replaced by Robert Bell, whose association with the Survey went back to 1857. Under Bell's leadership, increasing attention was paid to the mineral potential of the country; Survey reports of the period looked at nickel and copper deposits, oil field and gold deposits. Albert P. Low succeeded Bell in 1906 and served as Director for 18 months before being struck by severe illness. Low's most significant scientific work was his study of the Labrador Peninsula in 1895-1896 and leading the Canadian Government Expedition to Hudson Bay and the Arctic Islands. On an administrative level, Low oversaw the creation of the Department of Mines in 1907 when the Mines Act was passed by Parliament. The new department included the Geological Survey and the Mines Branch, an organization set up six years earlier to compile mining statistics and publicize opportunities in Canadian mining.

Reginald Brock was Low's successor in 1907 and under his leadership, the Geological Survey became a training ground for the Canadian geoscience community. Special emphasis was given to Precambrian geology and Low also created a separate topographical unit that would prepare the maps needed as a base for geological information. The topographical unit left the Survey in 1947, but remains closely linked as part of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada.

William Collins took over the survey in 1920, under Charles Camsell, the newly appointed head of the Department of Mines. In 1936, the departments of Mines, Interior, Immigration and Colonization and Indian Affairs were amalgamated into a single organization headed by Camsell-the new Department of Mines and Resources. World War II spawned many new technologies that changed the world and placed new demands on the Survey. High priority was given to Survey field and laboratory work related to locating and evaluating uranium. The post-war period also saw, for the first time, the Survey contributing geological information and expertise to aid in the construction of large-scale pubic works projects such as the St. Lawrence Seaway and the Red River floodway around Winnipeg, Manitoba. In 1959, the Survey also established a specialized marine geology research group to accommodate growing interest in Canada's huge offshore area.

In 1966, Parliament created the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources of which the Geological Survey of Canada today is part. The new department carried on the scientific responsibilities of its predecessor, the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, but through its new mandate to plan Canada's energy needs, it was transformed into an important policy-making department. Because of this new focus on energy policy, the Survey became heavily involved in resource appraisal.

From the 1970s to the present, the Survey has been involved in a variety of projects, such as terrain mapping concentrated mainly along the Mackenzie Valley pipeline route, the polar gas corridor of west Hudson Bay and in the Arctic Islands. Results of the Survey were used to evaluate the environmental impact of development in these areas. Other initiatives included the provision of geoscientific information about Canada's ocean resources, involvement in LITHOPROBE, a deep earth study geoscientific research program, a national mapping program and working closely with provinces and territories on a range of geoscience surveys and mapping projects in an effort to stimulate regional economic development.

Joseph Burr Tyrrell was born in Weston, Ontario on November 1, 1858. Following studies at the University of Toronto, Tyrrell received a position with the Geological Survey of Canada. His first field experience came under the tutelage of Dr. A.R.C. Selwyn in the Rocky Mountains. In 1893, Tyrrell led an expedition for the Geological Survey of Canada from Lake Athabasca to Chesterfield Inlet via Selwyn Lake, the Dubawnt River and the Thelon River.

Yellowknife Film Society
Corporate body

The Yellowknife Film Society is a member of the Canadian Federation of Film Societies, which represents more than 100 film societies across Canada. It was the first film society in the Northwest Territories and was incorporated under the NWT Societies Act in 1973. A volunteer executive chooses and schedules films in the fall to be shown throughout the winter to members and guests.

Corporate body

Originally known as the Commission on the Indian Canadian, the Commission was renamed the Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada in 1960. (In 1972, the organization was renamed the Canadian Association in Support of Native Peoples). In 1963, the Association, in co-operation with the CBC, began a project called the Delta Community Action Project, or Delcap. The project involved recording native people telling their personal stories and providing a forum for native people to speak on issues of importance to them. In 1965, the CBC recommended that the Community Action Program provide educational programs in native languages. The educational programs intended to specifically assist native people to achieve a goal that they had established for themselves. Overall, the radio programs were expected to: meet the special needs and circumstances of northern audiences; to stimulate independent creative activity; and to improve the economic, social and educational status of northerners. The Indian-Eskimo Association of Canada funded the project, while the CBC prepared the recordings for airing and then broadcast them.

Corporate body

The Constitutional Alliance was founded in February 1982 with the Dene Nation, Metis Association of the NWT, Committee for Original Peoples’ Entitlement (COPE), Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (ITC), and four members of the NWT Legislative Assembly as members.

On April 14, 1982, a plebiscite on division was held in the Northwest Territories with the majority in support of division. As a result, the Constitutional Alliance created two sub-committees: the Western Constitutional Forum (WCF) and the Nunavut Constitutional Forum (NCF). The Forums were tasked with proposing a boundary between east and west and negotiating it with the federal government and developing proposals for political and constitutional development for their respective territories. Both aims were to be accomplished using public consultation processes. The WCF and NCF continued to meet jointly as the Constitutional Alliance over the next several years. The primary responsibilities of the Constitutional Alliance were to coordinate the selection of the boundary, facilitate and coordinate cooperation, communication, and the sharing of research materials between the two Forums, and provide public support for their activities. Funding and support was obtained from both the Territorial and Federal Governments.

The first meeting of the Western Constitutional Forum took place on September 7-8, 1982 and the Western Constitutional Forum Management Society was formally incorporated on June 23, 1983. Steve Iveson served as the Executive Director from 1982-87. Additional staff members Deborah O’Connell, Aggie Brockman, and Janet Snider were hired in 1983. The original members were George Erasmus (Dene Nation), Bob Stevenson (Métis Association), Bob MacQuarrie (non-aboriginal MLA), and James Wah-shee (Legislative Assembly). Later active members included Larry Tourangeau, Mike Paulette, Steve Kakfwi, and Nick Sibbeston. At various times observers from COPE and the Kitikmeot West communities were also involved.

The mandate of the Western Constitutional Forum included: initiating and supervising independent research into topic areas relating to political development; reaching a tentative Agreement in Principal to guide the development of a new government for the western NWT; providing material to interested residents in the communities and travelling to communities to provide clarification and gather feedback; developing a proposal for the establishment of a new government and distributing this to communities, obtaining responses through community hearings; getting the final version of proposal ratified by the public; and negotiating with the Federal Government.

The two Forums had different approaches to the goals set before them and reaching agreement was a long and difficult process. In January 1985, the Constitutional Alliance reached an agreement on a process for establishing a boundary for division and a tentative boundary. However, the agreement was a subject of controversy between WCF and NCF in the following months. On January 15, 1987 the Boundary and Constitutional Agreement was signed by the WCF and NCF outlining shared principles on constitutional development and a tentative boundary for division, subject to the ratification of Dene/Métis and Inuit claim regions, endorsement by the organizations represented by agreement signatories, including the Legislative Assembly of the NWT, and endorsement in an NWT-wide plebiscite. Preparations for the plebiscite were made but never carried out because an agreement on the boundary between the Dene/Métis and Inuit claims could not be reached before the deadline.

Since the process appeared stalled, the Federal funding provided to the Forums dropped dramatically. By early 1988, the NCF dissolved and the WCF maintained its Society status, but became inactive. The Constitutional Alliance became the sole body responsible for constitutional development in the Northwest Territories. It was officially incorporated August 25, 1988 with the aim of further political and constitutional development taking into account aboriginal and non-aboriginal rights, using research and public consultation, with the end goal of negotiating with the federal government and getting public ratification on forms of public government. The original members included four MLAs (Steve Kakfwi, Tom Butters, Titus Allooloo, and Peter Ernerk) and representatives from the Dene Nation (Bill Erasmus), Métis Association (Mike Paulette), Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (Roger Gruben), and Tungavik Federation of Nunavut (president Donat Milortuk and regional representative Jack Kapeuna).

Between 1988 and 1990, the Constitutional Alliance had three successive Executive Directors: Aggie Brockman, Marina Devine, and Ben Nind. By mid-1989, it was obvious that the Alliance process had lost momentum and was not meeting its goals. Federal funding was also coming to an end. In early 1990, the Alliance concluded operations, although some aspects of the work were later carried on by the Commission for Constitutional Development and the Constitutional Development Steering Committee.

Fort Simpson (NT)
Corporate body

Fort Simpson was built in 1804 by the Northwest Company. It is the oldest continuously occupied trading post along the Mackenzie River. Fort Simpson obtained hamlet status on January 1, 1973.

Alternatives North fonds
Corporate body

Alternatives North, originally named 'Northern Support Group,' was formed in April 1977 in support of the principles of aboriginal right to land ownership and self-determination. Initially, the group served to present non-native, northern opposition to the proposed Mackenzie Valley Pipeline. When the name 'Northern Support Group' was officially registered by a group of Yellowknife businessmen supporting the pipeline, the new name Alternatives North was adopted.

Corporate body

The Daughters of the Midnight Sun was established on November 11, 1938 to fill the needs of a social club for women in Yellowknife. The first President was Mrs. Ivor Johnson. The organization was involved in fund-raising activities in Yellowknife and raised funds for the Red Cross, the supply of a hospital ward, playground equipment and library at the Stanton Yellowknife Hospital. It also raised funds to provide Christmas hampers to be distributed to communities outside Yellowknife each year. It raised money by sponsoring dances, Christmas parties and publishing cookbooks. The society began to wind down in 1985, and ceased to exist in 1987.

Dene Nation
Corporate body

Concerns over the written terms of Treaties 8 and 11 prompted the formation of the Indian Brotherhood of the Northwest Territories. Incorporated to represent the Dene people of the Northwest Territories in 1970, it changed its name to Dene Nation in 1978. In July 1975, the Second Dene Assembly, a representative assembly of Dene from all communities in the Mackenzie Valley, adopted the "Dene Declaration" at Fort Simpson. Beyond its work in negotiating land claims, the Dene Nation also oversees programs regarding Dene land and resource development, legal issues, health, community development and education.

Fort Good Hope (NT)
Corporate body

In the early 1980s, the Dene Community Council of Fort Good Hope established the Dene Language and Historical Research Project to gather oral histories and photographic images in the Fort Good Hope area. The aim was to create a body of research material for scholars, teachers and local residents and possibly for curriculum development. The project, co-coordinated by Cynthia Chambers, was aimed at the creation of oral histories by project workers, the accumulation of historical photographs from private collections and finally the documentation of the collected material through cataloguing. In 1988, the Council underwent a planning process to develop a plan for future community developments.

Hay River (NT)
Corporate body

Hay River began as a Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) trading post in 1868. It remained a trading post until 1939 when the beginnings of a settlement were established on Vale Island. Hay River became an Administration District on April 21, 1949 and a Municipal District on June 25, 1953. On July 19, 1963, Hay River obtained town status.

Hudson's Bay Company
Corporate body

The Hudson's Bay Company was proclaimed by royal charter in 1670. Originally, the company had exclusive trading rights in Rupert's Land, the area traversed by rivers flowing into the Hudson Bay. In 1821, a merger with the North West Company extended Hudson's Bay Company's monopoly to the North-West Territory. Shareholders elected a London based governor and committee which set policy for Rupert's Land. A bay area governor was then appointed and each trading post was commanded by a chief factor (trader) and a council of officers. The company headquarters was based in London, England until 1970 when it was moved to Winnipeg.

Corporate body

The Inuvialuit Social Development Program (ISDP) is a branch of the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, which was established to receive and manage benefits resulting from the 1984 Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA). The program was designed to promote the social, cultural and educational welfare of the Inuvialuit, focusing on the preservation of Inuvialuit culture. Activities of the ISDP include: participation in Oral Histories projects; involvement in Historical National Park studies; Language and Culture camps; Inuvialuit Genealogy Program; support to Inuvialuit Drum Dance groups; support for Adult Inuvialuktun Language Program classes; assistance in the development of Teacher Education Program of Arctic College in Inuvik and the participation in regional, territorial and national workshops regarding social, health and cultural issues.

Yellowknife Museum Society
Corporate body

The idea to establish a museum for the preservation of natural and historical materials of the Northwest Territories was originally conceived at a meeting of the Home and School Association of Yellowknife in 1952. After making use of space in Yellowknife school halls and assembly rooms, it became apparent that there was interest and material enough to warrant a separate museum building. The Yellowknife Museum Society was incorporated on July 14, 1958 as a vehicle to coordinate fund raising for a permanent museum facility in Yellowknife. The official functions of the society were: 1) To preserve and exhibit specimens of flora and fauna and objects having archaeological interest; 2) To preserve and mark buildings, structures and sites having historic significance; and 3) To carry on such other functions as are usual to a museum. In 1960, construction began on the Museum of the North; it opened in 1963 and was operated by the Yellowknife Museum Society. In November 1970, the Commissioner of the Northwest Territories and the Yellowknife Museum Society signed an agreement to transfer the assets of the Yellowknife Museum Society to the Government of the Northwest Territories; at this time, the Government of the Northwest Territories assumed operations for the Museum of the North.

Corporate body

The Diocese of the Arctic was formed in 1933 and incorporated in 1961; however, the administrative boundaries of the Anglican Church in the Northwest Territories have changed many times. In 1884, the Anglican Church created the Diocese of the Mackenzie River and it included parts of the Yukon and the Northwest Territories. In 1891, the Diocese of Selkirk was established and split off the Yukon from the Diocese of the Mackenzie River. In 1933, the Diocese of the Mackenzie River was abolished and the Diocese of the Arctic established. The new diocese consisted of the former Diocese of the Mackenzie River and parts of the Dioceses of Moosonee and Keewatin. It stretched across northern Canada from the Yukon-Alaska boundary to the Quebec-Labrador boundary and included the Ungava Peninsula and the Canadian islands north of the mainland. In 1970, the Episcopal District of Mackenzie River was established, however it rejoined the Diocese of the Arctic in 1974. Today, the Diocese of the Arctic spans the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Nunavik (Arctic Quebec). Originally the See city was in Aklavik with All Saints as the Pro-Cathedral, but in 1972 the See city became Iqaluit, when the Episcopal District of Mackenzie River as formed. The Diocese of the Arctic had has six bishops, Archibald Lang Fleming (1933-1949), Donald Ben Marsh (1950-1973), John Reginald Sperry (1974-1990), John Christopher Richard Williams (1991- 2002), Andrew Atagotaaluk (2002-2012), and David W. Parsons (2012-). The Diocese has also had several Suffragan Bishops, starting with Henry George Cook.

Cominco Ltd.
Corporate body

Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada Ltd. (C.M.S.) was formed in 1906 as a subsidiary of Canadian Pacific Rail with head operations in Trail, British Columbia. Its aggressive northern exploration in the 1920s and 1930s led to stakes claimed in 1927/28 on the lead and zinc deposits on the south shore of Great Slave Lake, which would later become Pine Point Mine, silver deposits at Great Bear Lake in the 1930s, and Con Mine, which was the first gold mine to go into production in the NWT in 1938. C.M.S. also developed other mines in the Northwest Territories including Thompson-Lundmark, Ruth, Ptarmigan, and Polaris. C.M.S. mines had a significant impact on the economic and social history of the Northwest Territories, particularly in the case of Con Mine and Pine Point.

Con Mine
C.M.S. sent several prospecting parties headed by Ted Nagle into the Yellowknife area in 1928/29, but their searches did not reveal anything significant. During a staking rush in 1935, Bill Jewitt sent a small group of men led by Mike Finland into the Kam Lake area of Yellowknife where they filed ‘CON’ claims in September and October. In 1937 C.M.S. bought an interest in Tom Payne’s adjacent properties, which developed into the Rycon Mine company. The construction of the Con-Rycon mines began on July 13, 1937 under the lead of Bob Armstrong. Production began in the spring of 1938 with the first gold brick poured on September 5, 1938. The Bluefish Hydro plant on Prosperous Lake was built in 1940 to support the energy needs of the mine, and also made Yellowknife the first electrified NWT community. Production at Con Mine ceased between 1943 and 1945 due to WWII although maintenance and development work continued under the direction of geologist Dr. Neil Campbell. The Campbell Shear Zone was named in honour of his hypothesis of a major orebody 2000 feet below the surface of the mine. Its existence was confirmed in 1946, with full production starting in 1963 and continuing until the closure of the mine. In 1953 C.M.S. bought the Negus Mine and found new reserves there. In 1966 C.M.S. changed its name to Cominco. The Robertson shaft – at 250 feet the tallest building in the NWT – was completed in 1977 and eventually reached a depth of 6250 feet. The Con Mine was the most productive gold mine in the NWT, and Cominco’s most successful gold mine.

In 1986 Cominco sold the Con Mine to Nerco Minerals for $46 million US. Con Mine was subsequently bought by Miramar Corporation for $25 million US in 1993. Miramar leased the mining rights of the Giant Mine in 1999 and milled Giant ore at the Con Mine. In 2003 mining ceased at Con, and the processing of Giant ore at Con ceased in 2004. Demolition and reclamation of the mine site occurred over several years, with the demolition of the iconic Robertson headframe - then the tallest structure in the NWT - happening on October 29, 2016.

Through its history, the Con Mine produced 5,276,363 ounces of gold from 12,195,585 tons of ore milled between 1938 and 2003. Over 10,000 gold bars were produced in 65 years of operation.

Pine Point
In 1928 C.M.S. began exploration in the Pine Point area south of Great Slave Lake, and in 1929 formed the Northern Lead Zinc Company with the Atlas Exploration Company and Ventures Ltd. Assessment work on the lead and zinc deposits in the area continued between 1930 to 1948, with extensive exploration drilling 1948 to 1955. Pine Point Mines Ltd. was formed in 1951 with C.M.S. holding a majority interest. In 1962 Pine Point Mines Ltd. began construction on the Great Slave Lake Railway with assistance from Canadian National Railway and the Canadian Federal government’s “Road to Resources” program. This railway line connected Roma Junction, Alberta and Pine Point, a company town that was established in 1964. Mining began in 1963, and mill production started in 1965. Mining ceased due to economics in 1987, and the town officially closed on September 1, 1987. 8.4 billion pounds of zinc and 2.6 billion pounds of lead were produced over the mine’s history. The railway and townsite have since been removed.

Corporate body

The Department of Industry and Development operated from 1967 until 1973; it was responsible for promoting the economic growth of the Northwest Territories. This included encouraging and providing for the development of the tourism industry at the local level through grant programs aimed at communities that would help them realize the economic benefit of tourism. It also provided training in management and hospitality, developed public tourism facilities, and promoted the north through advertising locally, at travel shows and through promotional materials such as maps and guides. This division was also involved in the promotion of commercial and industrial development by encouraging the establishment of primary and secondary industries that would provide economic benefit to northern residents. For example, they were involved in the expansion of the arts and crafts industry, the development of the fishing and lumber industry, as well as the development and supervision of cooperatives. The function of Game Management, which was also handled through this department, provided for the rational management of all game resources in the Northwest Territories. This was achieved by planning and implementing educational, research, big game and trap line management programs that were aimed at maximizing the utilization of the game resources of the North. This division also assisted indigenous people that still depended on natural renewable resources for their livelihood, by developing and enforcing game laws and regulations.

In 1969, the Department of Industry and Development headquarters organization was completed. Progress was made in coordinating and integrating the various programs in the fields of Tourism, Game Management and Industrial Development. As part of the new headquarters organizational structure, a small Administrative Section was established, to centralize administrative support for the department and to relieve program managers from routine administrative and accounting responsibilities. A second small headquarters element, the Research and Planning Section was also established in 1969 to carry out long-range planning for the Department and to assist in integrating departmental planning with that of the other departments of the Government of the Northwest Territories. This section was responsible for an analysis of the forest products industry, commercial fishing industry and the labour and material elements of the Northern Housing Program.

The Tourism Division was initially a program that was delivered by the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs and Northern Development. In 1968, this program was transferred from the Federal Government to the Department of Industry and Development of the Government of the Northwest Territories. The transfer of this program marked the establishment of organized tourism promotion in the Northwest Territories. This division consisted of three operating sections: Promotion, Development and Research. The polar bear symbol was introduced at this time as well as a series of promotional literature about the Northwest Territories. The division developed a policy designed to encourage greater activity and support of the tourism industry at the community level. This policy and supporting program enabled communities to play a more effective role in developing local services and in improving the reception and information services for visitors. The Tourism Division provided grant programs to remote indigenous communities to help them realize the economic benefit of the tourism industry. The program provided financial assistance for the construction of accommodation or renovations to existing buildings. The division also provided management training to members of the community and to lodges. Hospitality seminars, designed by Travel Industry Association of Canada, were delivered and the Visitor's Service Centre at the Alberta-Northwest Territories Border was opened. The public tourism facilities development program was initiated; it encouraged the development of day use and picnic areas along the Dempster Highway and the proposed Mackenzie Highway. The Tourism Division participated in travel shows in the United States and southern Canada and in conjunction with the Canadian Government, packaged tours of the Northwest Territories were offered. This division also published the Explorer's Guide and Official Travel Map. This division was successful in offering the first commercially packaged tours of the Northwest Territories and in 1971, assisted in launching the boat "Norweta," which brought group tours to the river settlements for the first time.

The Department of Industry and Development was responsible for identifying and developing employment-generating opportunities. It was involved in identifying areas of demand where opportunity existed for service support and secondary industries capable of providing meaningful wage employment to the residents of the Northwest Territories. An effort was made to provide management advice to small businesses, assist indigenous people in becoming involved in the wage economy, and permit them access to managerial positions. The division delivered employment oriented training courses such as the Junior Office Managers Course which was designed to produce junior managers for governmental and private enterprise. The department was instrumental in the formation of the Northwest Territories Chamber of Commerce in 1972.

The Industry Development Division also focused on preparing for the accelerated economic development in the Mackenzie Valley due to possible construction of the gas pipeline and construction of the Mackenzie Highway. The Research and Planning section of this division maintained close ties with Federal Government agencies and provided input into the planning for the pipeline and highway to ensure that the interests of northern residents would be protected.

The Industry Development Division was also involved in the identification and promotion of viable enterprises capable of being operated by, and providing employment for, northern residents. In one instance, a Lumber Grade Stamping Agency was established to up-grade the quality of lumber produced in the Northwest Territories. The division also helped to overhaul the boat shop in Hay River and relocated the Jean Marie River Sawmill. A particular emphasis was placed on the development of the commercial fishing industry. The division organized the Fisherman's Loan Approval Board that provided financial assistance and loans to fisherman who wished to purchase boats. The Freshwater Fish Marketing Corporation was established and this corporation assumed purchasing and marketing responsibilities of freshwater fish. The fish packing facilities at Lac La Martre were completed and the Wellington Bay Arctic Char Fishery was overhauled and put in good working condition. Major commercial fisheries operated on Great Slave Lake, Lac La Martre and Cambridge Bay. The establishment of a liaison with Central Region Fisheries Service and Environment Canada it was ensured that major commercial fishing operations in the Northwest Territories would be monitored to ensure a long-term fishery development program would be followed.

The Commercial Development program was delivered through the Industry Development Division. This program administered loans for business ventures, such as the Eskimo Loan Fund, Indian Economic Development Fund and Small Business Loan Fund. The department assumed responsibility for the cooperatives, therefore the development emphasis was placed on consolidating and strengthening the cooperatives. In 1971, the Canadian Arctic Co-operative Federation Limited was established as the coordinating body for all cooperatives in the Northwest Territories. In preparation for the establishment of the Federation, a cooperative education program was conducted and training program implemented for groups who wished to develop into co-operatives. An educational program on credit unions was also instituted. It was hoped that these initiatives would result in economic gains for aboriginal peoples.

Furthermore, the Industrial Development Division conducted research studies in order to determine potential markets for northern arts and crafts. A review was made of existing arts and crafts projects to determine methods of increasing production and provide additional income for the producers. This division also facilitated the promotion of northern arts and crafts. For example, the Masterworks Exhibition that was organized by the Canadian Eskimo Art Council was supported financially by this department and went on a world tour with showings in major art centers in the United States and Europe. Interest in northern arts and crafts was raised through the Pangnirtung weaving project and Baker Lake print program. The ultimate goal of the division was to facilitate the transfer of ownership of the Canadian Arctic Producers from the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, into the hands of northern producers.

The Game Management Division of the Department of Industry and Development oversaw the management of wildlife resources. A Fur Marketing Service was initiated to assist trappers wishing to take advantage of the services of the large fur auction houses. The Trappers Assistance Program provided repayable loans to enable the trapper to purchase supplies and equipment at the beginning of the trapping season. A Trapper Education Program aimed at encouraging the use of humane traps and assisted making these traps available. Guide Training Schools were conducted, as well as courses to interest young people in the trapping profession. The Game Management Officer Training Program was implemented in 1972 and sought to train northerners to be Game Management Officers and thereby eliminate the need to recruit from Southern Canada. The Game Management Division was also responsible for the development and enforcement of meaningful game laws and regulations. This included a caribou and polar bear tagging program aimed at maintaining the harvest of polar bear and caribou within safe limits and provided biological and management information for maintaining wildlife in appropriate numbers. The Program of Organized Settlement Caribou Hunts was also introduced by this division and assisted settlements in obtaining meat for their use.

In 1973, the Department of Industry and Development was renamed the Department of Economic Development and was restructured to respond more readily and effectively to the growing demands of the modern and traditional economies of the Northwest Territories.

Corporate body

The Department of Economic Development and Tourism was established in 1977 and assumed responsibility for the majority of the programs that were delivered by the Department of Economic Development.

The Department of Economic Development and Tourism was responsible for the promotion and development of businesses within the Northwest Territories in order to create jobs and incomes for northerners. This was facilitated through the provision of financial assistance such as grants and loans, technical support and employment training programs. The department targeted the development of employment opportunities within the arts and crafts, small business, gas and mineral, renewable resources and tourism sectors. The Department of Economic Development and Tourism was also responsible for the promotion and development of the Northwest Territories as a tourism destination, through marketing, development of tourist facilities and the territorial parks system.

The Business Services and Tourism Division operated between 1973-1979. It combined services required by the business community and the travel industry in the development of their enterprises. The Business Services or Financial section provided financial assistance through the Small Business Loan Fund and Eskimo Loan Fund and provided counseling for applicants seeking loans. The Cooperative and Credit Union sector provided general business counseling to new or developing businesses and regulated and monitored the operations of cooperatives and provided advisory services to cooperatives and to the Canadian Arctic Cooperative Federation. In 1978, this division also delivered the Special Rural Development Agreement (ARDA) funding which provided financial contributions to businesses and organizations, particularly aboriginal development corporations. The tourism activity managed Travel Arctic and the territorial parks. It provided services and assistance to encourage tourism and for the development of related facilities, such as package tours and visitor's centers. In 1979, this division reorganized and the Financial Services and Cooperative section transferred to the Business Development Division. The Parks and Tourism Division was created as the importance of developing infrastructure for the emerging tourist market was emphasized.

The Projects and Marketing Division of the Department of Economic Development and Tourism was responsible for the planning, development and overall management of the department's commercial, industrial and craft projects, as well as for the marketing activity. The Arts and Crafts program provided development, planning and counseling services to Inuit and aboriginal artists and artisans and published information about northern arts and crafts to dealers and collectors within and outside of the Northwest Territories. The program also focused on training local people to assume a managerial role in craft operations. The Marketing program worked with the Arts and Crafts activity to assist in the marketing of finished products and to exhibit northern arts and crafts at trade shows, through catalogues and at events such as the Pacific National Exhibition, Montreal Olympics and the Calgary Stampede.

In 1980, the Commerce Division replaced the Project and Marketing Division. The Commerce Division was responsible for promoting new business ventures, supporting and stimulating existing commercial activity, especially within the renewable resources sector. The Small Business Development sector was a new addition to this division that provided financial consulting, technical support, marketing advice and training programs that assisted new and existing businesses. The Arts and Crafts sector became a more enabling program that supported craft producer organizations, developed an awareness of opportunities and helped people to take advantage of these opportunities through the newly formed Northwest Territories Arts and Crafts Council and the Commercial Enterprises and Marketing sector. The Cooperative Division was integrated into the Commerce Division from the Business Services and Tourism Division in 1979. It continued to regulate and monitor the operations of cooperatives and provided advisory support to individual cooperatives and to the Canadian Arctic Cooperative Federation. Renewable Resources Development also became part of the Commerce Division at this time, which was consistent with the departmental mandate to maximize commercial development of primary resources. The objectives of this service were to provide technical assistance to the public and private sectors involved in planning, implementing or expanding of renewable based enterprises. Assistance was offered in preparing and evaluating proposals, feasibility studies, providing day-to-day technical assistance and financial support to the lumber and fishing industries and country foods programs, as well as maintaining a membership in related industry associations. Financial Services such as the Eskimo Loan Fund and the Fisherman's Loan Guarantee Fund, that had been part of the Business Services and Tourism Division, were now delivered through the Commerce Division.

In 1983, the Commerce Division reorganized and was renamed the Business Development Division. This division included a Small Business Section, Renewable Resources Development Section, Non-Renewable Resource Section and Arts and Crafts Section. The Non-renewable Resources Development placed an emphasis on promoting northern business in the mineral and petroleum sectors, produced the Northwest Territories Business Directory, and participated in trade shows that exhibited Northwest Territories exports. In 1988-1989, the Oil, Gas and Mining program was delivered through the Commerce Division. It encouraged the use of northern suppliers and a northern workforce and was involved in the North Warning System construction. Other activities delivered by the Commerce Division included the Trade, Investment and Industrial Development section that was responsible for stimulating activity in the areas of intersettlement, interprovincial and international trade and investment in small businesses. The Natural Resource Section promoted the integration of traditional skills in the wage economy. Programs and services were administered in support of commercial development of fisheries, arts and crafts, wildlife, forestry, fur and agriculture. The Oil and Gas Division and Natural Resources Division joined at this time to form the Resources Development Division, which continued to encourage employment and income benefits from renewable and non-renewable resource development.

In 1995-96, the Business Development Division was reorganized and renamed Corporate and Technical Services. The department was reorganized to meet increasing demands and programs were restructured to place decision-making closer to the client population. This was due to mineral exploration in the Northwest Territories and the expectation that there would be increased opportunity for local development. The division continued to deliver programs and services to small businesses, the arts and crafts sector, renewable resources and provided financial assistance through the Business Development fund.

When the Business Services and Tourism Division were reorganized, the Tourism and Parks Division was formed. This division placed a greater emphasis on developing the tourism industry and territorial parks system. It was responsible for tourism promotion, developing tourist facilities, providing advice and information to travelers and for developing, in conjunction with a Territorial Parks Committee, a Territorial Recreational Parks Program. The promotional publication, the Explorer's Guide was published by this division and the division participated in travel shows in Canada and the United States and promoted the Northwest Territories by advertising in magazines, direct mail campaigns, videos, merchandising and public relations. The division was also responsible for the implementation of the Tourism and Parks Programs, surveying travelers and evaluating tourist trends. The Regional Tourism Association was developed at this time to facilitate increased cooperation between the Department of Economic Development and Tourism, the private sector and community residents in order to encourage community participation in the economic and social benefits to be derived from the tourism industry. The division's main task was to create entrepreneurial and employment opportunities for residents and encourage the development of services and attractions that would contribute to the economy of the Northwest Territories.

In 1995-1996, the Tourism and Parks Division was reorganized and separated to form two divisions. The Parks and Visitors Services Division planned, developed and operated territorial parks and visitor's centers. This division was also responsible for interpretive displays, highway and community signage and provided direct service, support and information to encourage travel. The Territorial Parks Act and Territorial Travel and Tourism Act guided the program. The Tourism Development and Marketing Division was responsible for developing, monitoring and evaluating tourism products and programs. Activities included supporting tourism industry associations, issuing licenses and ensuring that regulations were maintained. In cooperation with private sector, this division also planned and coordinated a tourism image for the Northwest Territories, through advertising, sales, promotion, merchandising, public and media relations and travel counseling. The division conducted analysis of market intelligence and evaluated tourism trends to maximize the effectiveness of tourism development programs.

The Planning and Development Division operated between 1976-1984. It was responsible for researching and planning new economic development projects and promoted the development of resident businesses. In addition, this activity prepared economic statistics in the Northwest Territories, conducted economic analysis of existing and proposed projects and provided technical information on non-renewable resources development. During this time period, the Planning and Development Division was involved in the introduction of the Department of Regional and Economic Expansion (DREE) and the delivery of the Special Agricultural and Rural Development Agreement fund (ARDA) to the Northwest Territories. Between 1980-1984, the focus of the Planning and Development Division concentrated on maximizing the benefits of renewable and non-renewable resource projects; therefore, the name of the division was changed to the Planning and Resource Development Activity to reflect this change of focus. The Economic Development Agreement was also delivered through the Planning and Resource Division and facilitated Federal-Territorial cooperation in initiatives that promoted planning and implementation of economic and socioeconomic development in the Northwest Territories. The economic initiatives focused on renewable resource development, arts and crafts, minerals, planning, tourism and small business development.

Between 1984-85, there were several changes within the Planning and Development Division and it ceased to exist. The mineral and petroleum resource section transferred to the Business Development Division and the responsibility for administering the Economic Development Agreement and development economic incentive policies were transferred to the Directorate.

In 1981, a Mineral and Petroleum Resource Development Section was added to the department to deal with non-renewable resource development and ensure participation of northerners within the industry. The Economic Planning Secretariat, also delivered by the department at this time, was responsible for Territorial economic planning program, formulation, policy development and evaluation and providing technical and professional expertise inside and outside the department.

In 1984-1985, the Financial Service and Administration Division was created and became responsible for the provision of financial and administration services in support of the department's objectives. The Administration section managed the division and provided support for personnel activities; the Finance section was responsible for general accounting of revenue and expenditures and coordinating and monitoring the budgetary processes. The Loans Administration Section was responsible for administration and accounting for Business Loans and Guarantees Fund, Eskimo Loan Fund, Special Agricultural and Rural Development Agreement Fund (ARDA) and Economic Development Agreement. The Systems and Procedures section provided technical assistance and training in financial management, accounting procedures and control.

Between 1985-86, the Department created the temporary Expo '86 division in which staff developed and operated a pavilion that presented the Northwest Territories to the world during Expo 1986, in Vancouver. The pavilion included audiovisual exhibits, a theatre, and a stage for live performances, a business center and retail sales concession. The program was completed during the 1986-87 fiscal year.

The Employment and Training Division was responsible for determining needs, developing strategies and administering programs directed at increasing employment levels and employability of northern residents. This division provided an employment and training placement and referral service, developed, coordinated and administered programs that would increase employment and provided training in career development. It also administered programs designed to solve short or long term unemployment problems in communities and developed and operated an employment counseling service through the Northwest Territories. This division delivered programs such as the Subsidized Term Employment Program (STEP), Territorial Employment Record and Information System (TERIS) and Hire North that trained northerners in operating highway construction equipment in order to construct a portion of the Mackenzie Highway.

The name of the Employment and Training Division was changed to Manpower Development Division in 1981. The division continued to be responsible for manpower counseling, identifying and securing training and employment opportunities for northerners and managing Apprenticeship Program, Training-on-the Job Program, Subsidized Term Employment Program, Labour Pools, Job Rotations, Job Relocations, Career Program and Territorial Employment Record Information System (TERIS).

During 1984-85, the Manpower Development Division continued to deliver programs however, it also was involved in facilitating the amalgamation of the various training functions in the Government of the Northwest Territories into the Department of Education.

The Policy and Planning Division emerged in 1987-1988 and was responsible for the evaluation and development of policies and programs for the department. It consisted of the Economic Planning and Policy Evaluation Sections and prepared the Northwest Territories Economic Review and Outlook. The division also provided technical assistance and advice to other divisions in the areas of market assessments, feasibility studies and special economic analyses. During 1995-1997, a Human Resources component was added to the Policy and Planning Division. This activity administered the Affirmative Action Business Education Development program (AABED) and was responsible for developing and maintaining the electronic information systems.

In 1995, the Business Credit Corporation was added to the Department of Economic Development and Tourism. It was a Crown agency that provided loans, contract security lines of credit and loan guarantees to eligible businesses in Northwest Territories. The purpose of this activity was to provide operational funding for the Northwest Territories Business Credit Corporation.

In 1996-1997, the Department of Economic Development and Tourism joined with the Department of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources and the Department of Renewable Resources to form the Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development.

Corporate body

The Department of Renewable Resources originated from the Department of Natural and Cultural Affairs' Wildlife Service Division in 1979.

The Department of Renewable Resources' responsibilities included wildlife, fisheries, water, forestry, land management and environmental protection. It managed wildlife and forest resources and ensured that the option of resource harvesting was maintained as a lifestyle and economic option for future generations in the Northwest Territories. The department was responsible for the support of the renewable resource economy and acted as the management and regulatory authority for wildlife and environmental protection. Furthermore, it had key responsibilities in planning for use of land and inland water resources. It participated in a wide range of Federal/Territorial committees and boards that coordinated and advised on land, inland water and offshore regulation and management programs. The department also advised and provided a territorial perspective on other areas of renewable resource management where the primary authority remained with the Federal Government.

Initially, the Department of Renewable Resources was made up of five divisions: the Directorate, Wildlife Service, Environmental Services, Energy Conservation and the Science Advisory Board of the Northwest Territories.

The Directorate Division provided overall direction, corporate planning, administrative support and coordination for the programs of the department, including the development of departmental policies. This division advised the Minister on the state of the programs and acted as a liaison with other government departments and organizations as required. The Directorate was responsible for the work of the Traditional Knowledge Working Group. The Directorate was also responsible for providing advice and support to the Aboriginal Rights and Constitutional Development Secretariat on all renewable resource related negotiations.

The Wildlife Services Division, later known as the Wildlife Management Division, was responsible for implementing programs designed to assess the status and productivity of wildlife populations. It provided advice on the limits of sustainable yield and land use activities as they affected wildlife populations. This division encouraged the conservation of the natural habitat, particularly for species upon which Northwest Territories residents depended. Effort focused primarily upon caribou, polar bear, gyrfalcon, and musk ox, with secondary projects that dealt with moose, wood bison, Dall's sheep, and fur-bearing animals. The division enforced quotas, issued licenses and permits, conducted research, conducted surveys and implemented tagging programs. Prior to the creation of the Field Services Division in 1982, the Wildlife Services Division also delivered funding and provided grants to the Hunters' and Trappers' Associations, as well as delivered wildlife management and awareness programs through the schools.

The Environmental Services sector administered the Environmental Protection Ordinance, the Pesticide Ordinance and Clean Air Act of Canada and the Scientist Ordinance in the Northwest Territories. This division was responsible for the inspection and monitoring of potential polluting incidents, the development of environmental emergency plans and response to environmental emergencies. The name of this division changed to the Pollution Control Division in 1984.

The Energy Conservation activity provided support services to the Federal/Territorial Energy Conservation Management Committee and developed public awareness pertaining to energy conservation. This activity was transferred to Government Services in 1981.

The Science Advisory Board was concerned with the development of a resident scientific community capable of planning and conducting northern research so that the priorities of northern people were fully realized. The Board's objective was to encourage the application of science, engineering and technology to improve life and living conditions for people in the Northwest Territories. The Science Advisory Board changed its name to the Science Institute of the Northwest Territories in 1986. In 1989-90, the Science Institute transferred from the Department of Renewable Resources and became an agency that reported directly to the Executive.

The Environmental Planning and Assessment Division operated between 1981-1985. It provided the departmental focus for the integration of renewable resource management programs and managed the environmental assessment and strategic planning response for major resource development projects. This division concentrated on land use planning, water management, environmental monitoring/surveillance, management of environmentally sensitive areas and was involved in formal regulatory hearings, such as the Beaufort Sea Environmental Assessment and Review Board hearings. When this division disbanded in 1985, the 'Planning' part of the division became the Policy and Planning Division.

The Policy and Planning Division was responsible for the following: providing advice to the Deputy Minister on matters of resource management, developing program evaluation systems, providing assistance to other divisions in the development of policy, developing public consultation strategies, coordinating the participation of the department in the formal assessment and review of resource development projects, coordinating the departmental involvement in the negotiation and implementation of Aboriginal Land Claims and coordinating the department's legislative requirements. Policy and Planning was involved in the negotiations of delegating inland fisheries management from the Federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans to the Department of Renewable Resources.

The Field Services Division was added to the Department of Renewable Resources in 1982 and it operated until 1987. It was created out of some of the services delivered by the Wildlife Services Division. In 1987, the name was changed to Conservation Education and Resource Development, although there was no change in the division's mandate or programs. Initially, the division provided advice and support to the entire department and emphasis was placed on public information and educational programs to make northern residents aware of the departmental programs and priorities. By the mid-1980's, the division provided conservation education, assistance to renewable resource harvesters and was responsible for developing the renewable resource economy. Major assistance programs were designed to support the hunting and trapping economy and an emphasis was placed on the fur industry and assisting trappers in acquiring and learning how to use new trapping systems. In addition, support was provided to organizations of resource users to enable them to become more involved in wildlife management. Programs such as trapper education, outpost camp programs, fur sales, firearm safety and conservation education were delivered by this division. In 1986, this division became involved with the Federal Government and Government of the Northwest Territories' Department of Economic Development and Tourism in the fish-stocking program.

The Environmental Services Division became the Pollution Control division in1984; the division's main task was maintaining the high standard of environmental quality in the North through the administration of the Environmental Protection Ordinance and the Pesticide Ordinance, which monitored and regulated industrial, commercial and municipal activities. This division also participated in joint regulatory committees such as the Arctic Waters Advisory Committee, Regional Ocean Dumping Advisory Committee and the Technical Advisory Committee to the Northwest Territories' Water Board. The name of this division changed to the Environmental Protection Division in 1994.

The Land Use Planning Division, later known as the Regional Land Use Planning Division in 1989, emerged in 1987 and was responsible for the coordination and management of the Government's participation in the Federal/Territorial Land Use Planning Program. It was the division's responsibility to ensure that the best use of land and resources were represented in the planning process.

In 1988, the Forestry Division, later known as Forest Management, was transferred to the department from the Federal Government. This division was responsible for the management and use of forest resources through the development of forest management plans that addressed how to develop the timber resources and protect them at the same time. In addition, this division developed and delivered at silvicultural program that was concerned with improving existing forests and establishing new forests through harvesting. The monitoring of insects and disease and issuing timber permits and licenses were also the responsibility of this division.

The Fire Operations Division was also added to the department in 1988; it was responsible for the coordination of the department's fire control planning and operations through establishing and implementing fire management plans according to territorial policy. The division was involved in fire prevention activities and training and delivered a public information program on forest fire management. In 1992, the Fire Operations Division changed its name to Forest Fire Management

The Field Operations Division emerged in 1989 and delivered all departmental programs at the regional and community level. There were Field Operations staff in most communities and they acted as the main interface between the department and the resource users. The staff provided advice and assistance to the Hunters' and Trappers' Associations, assisted resource users in resource development and resource use activities and assisted and advised communities in pollution control, fire suppression and wildlife management studies and enforced renewable resource legislation. In addition, this division interpreted and coordinated the department's responsibilities under land claims and worked with claimant organizations at the regional and local level.

In 1997, the Department of Renewable Resources amalgamated with Economic Development and Tourism to form the Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development.